Fastest Growing Jobs in the Federal Government

This was crossposted from the U.S. Department of Labor blog.

Public Service Recognition Week is an annual observance that honors the people who serve our nation as federal, state, county, local and tribal government employees. This year, to celebrate Public Service Recognition Week, we’re recognizing the hardworking people who make up our federal workforce and looking to federal workers of the future. Which occupations in the federal government are projected to have the fastest employment growth from 2020 to 2030? According to data produced by federal workers at the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, most of the occupations are related to information technology or math.

Employment in some occupations is projected to increase by 2030, despite an expected decline of 2% in federal employment overall. In fact, as the table shows, federal employment in occupations that focus on IT or math is projected to grow faster than the 8% average for occupations across all industries from 2020 to 2030. And each of these occupations had a median annual wage greater than the $71,120 median annual wage for all workers in the federal government in 2021.

Data chart on Fastest Growing Jobs in the Federal Government.

Chart 1 data below

Two occupations in the table typically require a master’s degree for entry: Statisticians, projected to have the fastest federal employment growth (23%) among those shown, apply statistical methods to collect, organize and interpret data. Computer and information research scientists design innovative uses for new and existing computing technology.

The remaining occupations shown in the table typically require a bachelor’s degree, with three also needing related work experience.

Medical and health services managers plan, direct and coordinate the business activities of healthcare providers. Applicants for federal jobs may need experience developing, evaluating, and adjusting administrative services.

Management analysts recommend ways to improve an organization’s efficiency. The experience they need for a federal position may include developing cost analyses of projects or of current or projected programs.

Computer occupations, all other includes web administrators, digital forensics analysts and document management specialists. Job duties vary by position. For example, some federal workers collect and analyze Internet services usage and performance statistics.

Data scientists extract meaningful information and insights from large data sets. Applicants for federal jobs may need knowledge, skills or abilities related to areas such as artificial intelligence, big data principles and data visualization.

Information security analysts plan and carry out security measures to protect an organization’s computer networks and systems. For federal jobs, applicants may need experience formulating program initiatives in response to critical IT security issues.

Operations research analysts use math and logic to help solve complex problems. In federal jobs, they may design, develop, and maintain systems.

Logisticians analyze and coordinate an organization’s supply chain. Logisticians working for federal agencies may need to monitor the progress of a specific plan and identify the cause and impact of delays or other problems.

Aerospace engineers design aircraft, spacecraft, satellites and missiles. Federally employed aerospace engineers may develop, analyze and lead operations for mission scenarios and flight systems.

The federal government employs workers in about 350 occupations, according to BLS. Visit the Occupational Outlook Handbook to learn about the job duties, education requirements, wages and more for the occupations highlighted here, as well as hundreds of others. Applicants to federal jobs may need specialized skills or experience. Requirements are specified in USAJobs postings and in the U.S. Office of Personnel Management standards for selected occupations.

Ryan Farrell and Maria Hussain are economists in the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Follow BLS on Twitter at @BLS_gov.

Chart 1 data:

Fastest growing occupations employed by the federal government, projected 2020–30


Employment growth in federal government, projected 2020–30

Education typically needed for entry

Median annual wage in federal government, 2021



Master’s degree $114,050
Medical and health services managers1


Bachelor’s degree $127,590
Management analysts1


Bachelor’s degree $100,730
Computer occupations, all other


Bachelor’s degree $105,600
Data scientists2


Bachelor’s degree $80,180
Information security analysts1


Bachelor’s degree $106,520
Computer and information research scientists


Master’s degree $112,310
Operations research analysts


Bachelor’s degree $120,950


Bachelor’s degree $88,710
Aerospace engineers


Bachelor’s degree $123,800
Note: None of the occupations typically requires on-the-job training to attain competency.

1 To enter this occupation, applicants also typically need less than 5 years of work experience in a related occupation.

2 Projected growth is for data scientists and mathematical science occupations, all other. “All other” includes occupations such as business intelligence analysts, clinical data managers, and bioinformatics technicians.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Office of Occupational Statistics and Employment Projections.

5 Valuable Financial Tips for College Students

This was crossposted from the U.S. Department of Education’s blog, Homeroom.

5 Valuable Financial Tips for College Students

By: Andrew O’Donnell, intern for the U.S. Department of Education’s Office of Federal Student Aid

As someone currently attending community college, I can tell you firsthand about many of its benefits. Not only is community college significantly cheaper than four-year institutions and often much closer to home, it’s also a great place to begin your postsecondary education if you’re someone like me who was unsure of a specific program of study to pursue right after graduating from high school.

In addition to considering community college, it’s beneficial to weigh all of your options before deciding what college to attend. The U.S. Department of Education’s College Scorecard is a tool that provides data to prospective college students and their families about the costs of different colleges. This resource can be used not only to compare the costs of different institutions, but also to compare other metrics of a college such as its graduation rate, the post-college earnings of graduates, and more. The College Scorecard is a great tool for current and prospective students to make well-informed financial and academic decisions about their postsecondary education options.

Unfortunately, not all these options are taught during high school. The Council for Economic Education’s recent 2022 – Survey of the States study found that only 23 states require students to take a course in personal finance to graduate. This seems to directly conflict with the need for financial education for prospective college students who are faced with a wide array of important financial decisions, such as deciding where they will go to college and how they will pay for it.

The following 5 steps will put you on track to succeed financially throughout not just college but also life after school.

Create a Budget

Regardless of your current financial situation, creating a budget and sticking to it lets you control where your money goes instead of wondering where it went. A budget is a guide that helps you track and organize your cash inflows and outflows. Your budget should account for your personal financial goals, which may include paying bills, saving, giving to others, treating yourself, and much more. Get started by using Federal Student Aid’s simple guide to creating a budget and check out their brief video on budgeting to further your understanding.

Start an Emergency Fund

It can be difficult to prepare for all of life’s surprises. That’s why when the unexpected happens, an emergency fund can turn what could have been a financial crisis into a mere inconvenience. An emergency fund is a cash reserve that’s set aside specifically for financial emergencies or unplanned expenses. Losing a job, needing a car repair, or experiencing a medical emergency are all realistic examples of what you could use an emergency fund for. The Financial Industry Regulatory Authority’s guide to starting an emergency fund recommends that your emergency fund is made up of roughly 3-6 months’ worth of living expenses. Make sure you keep these funds somewhere where they can be easily accessed, but also where you won’t be tempted to use them for non-emergencies! Having this financial safety net gives you peace of mind and helps protect you from having to incur debt when an unexpected expense or emergency arises.

Fill Out the FAFSA Form and Apply for Scholarships

The Free Application for Federal Student Aid, better known by the acronym FAFSA, is a form completed by both current and prospective college students to identify their eligibility for federal aid. Filling out the FAFSA every year is a great way to determine if you are eligible to receive financial aid that can help you pay for college. The first “F” in FAFSA stands for free! It costs you nothing to fill out this form every year, and you may have to fill it out to be eligible for certain scholarships at your college anyway. Be sure to fill out the FAFSA annually. However, the FAFSA isn’t the only resource available that you can use to help pay for college. Scholarships are a form of financial aid that don’t have to be repaid! Scholarships can be offered on the basis of a variety of criteria, which can include academic merit, athletic skill, inclusion and diversity, and financial need. Scholarships can also differ drastically in terms of their amount. Be sure to check your college’s website or call their financial aid office to learn about the various scholarships that they may offer and apply for as many as you qualify for. For more information on scholarships, check out Federal Student Aid’s page on everything you need to know about scholarships.

Start Building Credit and Know Your Credit Score

A credit score is an indication of how “creditworthy” you are, which is a metric used to represent how likely you are to repay a loan on time. Your credit score is important because it directly affects your ability to finance large purchases like a house or car, your eligibility to obtain lower interest rates, as well as your potential to receive housing and insurance discounts associated with a high credit score. Most credit scores range from 300 – 850 and the higher the score, the better your chances are of being approved for a loan and obtaining a favorable rate. Some of the factors that contribute to the calculation of your credit score include your bill-paying history, your amount of debt, and the amount of credit you’re using. You can find more details about how your credit score is calculated from the Consumer Finance Protection Bureau here. Also get a free copy of your credit report. Repaying student loans and having a credit card you pay off on time every month are both great ways to positively impact your credit score. However, be very cautious about your credit card use because failing to pay off your credit card bill on time will harm your credit score and likely result in you being charged with extremely high interest rates on your payments!

Start Planning for Retirement

For many college students, saving for retirement may be an afterthought because it’s so far off. Despite the fact that most college students won’t retire for several decades, now is the best time to start saving in order to ensure a successful retirement. Explore all the options you have when it comes to different retirement savings accounts and choose the one that fits you best. By beginning to save now, you can benefit from the power of compound interest, the process by which your savings grow exponentially, or at a continually increasing rate. Take advantage of your youth and start saving early!


Many of the financial decisions that you make during college will have a lifelong impact, which is why it’s important to become financially-literate. Continuing your education beyond high school should open new doors and provide you with new opportunities, not burden you with financial regrets. Wise financial decision-making now can lead to a prosperous financial future and help give you the upper hand when it comes to financial success.

Author’s Bio:

Andrew O’Donnell is an intern for the U.S. Department of Education’s Office of Federal Student Aid. He is passionate about the field of personal finance and will be pursuing a bachelor degree in finance at a four-year institution after graduating from Carroll Community College with an associate degree in business administration.

How Schools are Reducing Environmental Impacts, Improving Health, and Cultivating Stewards of Our Planet

This was crossposted from the U.S. Department of Education’s blog, Homeroom

Today the U.S. Department of Education named the 2022 U.S. Department of Education Green Ribbon Schools, District Sustainability Awardees, and Postsecondary Sustainability Awardees. Across the country there are 27 schools, five districts, and four postsecondary institutions that are recognized. These honorees employ innovative practices and policies to reduce environmental impact and utility costs, improve health and wellness, and ensure effective sustainability education.

Could your school be the next U.S. Department of Education Green Ribbon School? Check out these spotlights from the 2022 honorees:

inside view of a greenhouse
Crellin Elementary School in Oakland, Maryland

Environmental education and sustainability changes at Crellin Elementary School (CES) began when the school community found historic mining contaminants in the creek behind the school. Not only was CES able to remedy the pollution, but it increased the overall health of the riparian area while creating an outdoor classroom. The environmental education laboratory is an outdoor classroom where students participate in hands-on activities using the wetland, boardwalk, hemlock forest, vernal ponds, meadows, orchard, and adjacent creek. CES’s agriculture program features barns with sheep and hens, with a solar panel to maximize hens’ egg production through daylight provision. The greenhouse employs hydroponics systems. CES has made efficiency upgrades, including building automation, interior and exterior LED lights, double-paned windows, HVAC, and building envelope, leading to an immediate decrease in energy usage. Low-flow fixtures reduce domestic water consumption and rain barrels provide water for gardens and barn animals.

group of students outside in river or creek
Escuela Verde in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Escuela Verde is a school founded on ecopedagogy that is constantly striving to live out a vision of creating a just, peaceful, and sustainable future. As a project-based learning school, students explore how science and ecology connect to many other domains. Students choose a topic for their senior thesis projects that they are passionate about and complete a year-long, 300-hour project. Recent topics have involved leading nature hikes and forest bathing; improving health and well-being through biking, camping, mindfulness, and art therapy; organizing neighborhood cleanups; building a chimney swift tower; and distributing bird houses. The school has energy efficient windows, lighting, and heating/cooling systems. The school also installed a solar voltaic array on the roof, which offsets about 32% of the school’s electrical use. The school’s emphasis on food and food justice has led to an entirely vegetarian school lunch. Efforts to reduce waste include composting and the use of cloth towels and mops rather than paper towels. Escuela Verde’s guiding curriculum is based on sustainability themes, which have been adapted from The Cloud Institute’s Education for Sustainability Standards & Indicators.

group of kids shredding carrots
Suisun Valley K-8 School in Fairfield, California

Located in the heart of a viticulture area, Suisun Valley School (SVS) is a K-8 school focusing on agricultural technology.  In 2020, SVS applied a cool roof system on all school buildings. SVS has a trench drain, xeriscaping, and drip-irrigation campuswide. Students designed and maintained two 2,500-gallon cistern rain harvester systems that function with solar and wind energy. SVS raises chickens to consume waste and contribute organic fertilizer to the school garden. Together with a student devised and operated on-site composting bin system, a vermiculture program, and city organics pick-up, these efforts eliminate the school’s waste removal costs. SVS employs a full-time agriscience teacher to oversee the school’s two-acre farm, which features a three-tower indoor hydroponic center, an outdoor kitchen classroom, a greenhouse, a quarter-acre of field crops, 104 raised beds, 29 fruit trees, a vineyard, a quarter-acre permaculture guild area, an eighth-acre California native garden section, and seed/cutting production areas. The goal of the agriscience program, in addition to teaching and reinforcing state science standards, is to teach K-8 students the origins of food, how it is grown or produced, and the vital role that agriculture plays in human survival.

young students looking at Monarch butterfly
Charles H. Barrows STEM Academy in Windham, Connecticut

Charles H. Barrows STEM Academy (Barrows) was designed for sustainability and use of the school as a learning tool. The school is a Connecticut Green Leaf School, National Wildlife Habitat, and Monarch Way Station. Sustainable education unfolds in specialized labs and classrooms, outdoor classrooms, raised garden beds, courtyards, walking paths, meadow, marsh area, wetland, and wooded temperate forest. Barrows’ oceanography room boasts saltwater and freshwater tanks and leverages NOAA B-Wet grant funding. A new 160-foot greenhouse will extend the growing season and enhance the urban farming curriculum. Using the outdoors as learning labs, from planting window box seeds to managing outdoor gardens, students learn firsthand about alternative energy generation from renewable energy sources. Barrows’ food share program helps students facing food insecurity, and composting efforts benefit the garden. Stormwater management features funnel water down rain chains and into a dry riverbed. Project-based learning provides a real-world context for learning STEM, both outdoor and in classrooms.

Caddo Parish Magnet High School in Shreveport, Louisiana

At Caddo Parish Magnet High School (Caddo), student green and interact clubs spearhead environmental service and stewardship, including participation in national convenings, education about the UN Sustainable Development Goals, a monthly blog, composting, and cleanup days.  Through partnerships with the Louisiana Water Environment Association, Caddo students identify ways to solve water problems. Annually, students engage in Envirothon, a state natural resources agency sponsored event, to demonstrate their knowledge of environmental science and natural resource management. Students engage in the school’s energy conservation efforts through programs and activities in Advanced Placement Environmental Science and Greens Club. Water quality and grounds efforts include student research and construction of stormwater retention areas; the installation of a greenhouse, rain barrels, raised beds, and water bottle filling stations; student water quality monitoring and storm drain marking; and the designation of a National Wildlife Federation Certified Schoolyard Habitat and Monarch Butterfly Waystation.

people outside digging with shovels and planting trees
Northwestern University in Chicago, Illinois

Northwestern University (Northwestern), ranked AASHE STARS Gold, is guided by a Strategic Sustainability Plan. In 2020 and 2021, Northwestern became the first university to receive the EPA’s ENERGY STAR® Sustained Excellence Award. Partnerships with Clearway Energy and Ameresco offer solar projects and infrastructure upgrades for efficiency, while facilitating student learning. All new campus construction is required to meet or exceed LEED Gold certification, and the university already is home to 23 LEED-certified buildings. Northwestern’s facilities and grounds include solar panels, electric vehicle charging stations, bioswales and retention basins, and reflective and green roofing. Waste reduction efforts include composting. Across all departments, over 100 courses at the graduate and undergraduate levels focus directly on sustainability, with an additional 140+ courses featuring sustainability-related content. Northwestern’s Institute for Sustainability and Energy offers interdisciplinary graduate and undergraduate courses in the fields of sustainability and energy. Other departments offer environment and sustainability-related degrees and certificates, ranging from environmental engineering to environmental policy and culture. Programs, such as the Global Engineering Trek in Sustainability and Chicago Field Studies, give students opportunities to study abroad and/or work in the local community to gain experience in the sustainability field. A Green Office Certification program empowers community members to evaluate and improve their office sustainability practices.

To learn more about U.S. Department of Education’s Green Ribbon Schools, visit the ED-GRS website. If you are inspired to make your own school more sustainable, visit ED’s Green Strides School Sustainability Resource Hub.

Path to Digital Equity: Why we need to address the digital divide with solutions around adoption

This was crossposted from the U.S. Department of Education’s Office of Educational Technology blog.

Imagine creating conditions where every learner and community can fully access and leverage the technology needed for full participation in learning, the economy, and society at large. Simultaneously, every learner and community is equipped with connected devices, learning content, digital literacy skills, technical support, and a reliable, high-speed internet connection.

This vision is driving the newly-announced Digital Equity Education Roundtables (DEER) Initiative, led through a partnership between the Office of Educational Technology (OET) at the US Department of Education and Digital Promise.

Today, it’s estimated that nearly 16 million students lack adequate internet connection, access to devices at home, or both. Technical approaches, such as distributing devices and subsidizing internet subscription costs, are essential components to the solution. However, these approaches on their own will not solve the human-level challenges individuals and communities face daily. About six million learners and three million households currently face adoption[1] barriers beyond availability and affordability. Moreover, less than 25 percent of households eligible for the FCC’s Emergency Broadband Benefit had enrolled as of December 2021, and a similar percentage of low- and middle-income households are even aware of free or discount internet offers.

Through the Bipartisan Infrastructure Law (BIL), otherwise known as the Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act, states have been tasked with identifying such barriers and more through the development of a state digital equity plan. Thus far, the field has learned the following insights, which impact learners and communities in varying ways:

  • Awareness and understanding of available programs and resources is critical. In some instances, student communities are misidentified as fully connected and do not receive the necessary communication and support, when they may actually be “under-connected.” In other instances, families’ needs such as language barriers aren’t properly addressed.
  • Access to available programs and resources can be challenging. Enrollment for broadband and related supports often call for tedious, time-consuming processes that cause confusion around eligibility, application status, distribution, and installment.
  • Trust between learner communities and services is essential. For many communities, there is a lack of existing relationships between public/private sectors and constituents, along with concerns about data privacy, hidden or unexpected fees, or future costs.
  • Building digital readiness and digital literacy among learners and communities can support adoption. Lack of opportunities to build such skills or obtain readily-available technical support prohibits individuals from taking full advantage of connectivity for learning.

“Over the last two years, we’ve learned that broadband access to the internet and technology-enabled learning are not nice-to-haves, but critically essential to providing learning continuity during disruptive and uncertain times. The future of learning will force us to utilize connected devices to create more ubiquitous and more powerful learning experiences for students independent of time and location. The $65B bipartisan investment into our country’s technological infrastructure will move us closer to achieving digital equity for all communities and students, and particularly for students of color, Native students, students who live in rural and urban communities, and for students who attend Historically Black Colleges and Universities and other Minority-Serving higher education institutions.” D’Andre Weaver, Chief Digital Equity Officer, Digital Promise

In the last two years, various strategies from different levels of the education system have emerged to solve for these barriers. Long-term, systemic approaches call for iterations of these solutions, driven by ongoing input from the communities experiencing the barriers, along with cross-sector partnerships to ensure that schools alone aren’t burdened with the responsibility of solving societal challenges. These strategies include:

  • Delivering personalized and accessible communication that meets families where they are, such as efforts to deploy digital inclusion teams and leveraging multiple methods to engage families with language translation available;
  • Providing multiple ways to demonstrate program eligibility and limiting the number of steps necessary to apply, along with transparency about data collection, privacy, and future costs;
  • Collaborating with community members to build a shared vision for digital equity, develop partnerships with experienced organizations and community champions who have successfully engaged in inclusion efforts, and identify and invest in shared spaces with less adoption barriers; and
  • Focusing on capacity building by offering more training for families and students, providing professional development and coaching to educators on active, inclusive, and accessible learning experiences, and providing on-demand, multilingual educator and family technical support.

“The broadband funds in the Bipartisan Infrastructure Law provide a historic opportunity to close the digital divide for our learners, families, and communities. We look forward to working with our partners at Digital Promise to examine barriers that impede equitable access to technology-enabled learning and provide recommendations around how leaders, especially through their digital equity plans, can overcome those challenges.” — Kristina Ishmael, Deputy Director, Office of Educational Technology

In order to learn from these strategies, OET and Digital Promise are hosting a series of national conversations to further examine barriers faced by learner communities and identify promising solutions that can lead to real impact on their abilities to access and use technology for learning. Based on these conversations, OET and Digital Promise will share strategic guidance on equitable broadband adoption considerations to support states in building their digital equity plans, as well as drive community action and commitment aligned to the vision for digital equity emphasized in the publication.

If you’d like to get involved, reach out to with to share questions and your successful stories of adoption strategies. Please Include “OET DEER” in the Subject Line

[1] Whereas availability and affordability of broadband refer to the coverage of physical infrastructure and low/no-cost programs to enable access, “adoption” refers to the process by which an individual obtains daily access to the internet at a speed, quality, and capacity necessary for accomplishing common tasks, with the digital skills that are for the individual to participate online, and on a personal device and secure and convenient network.

American Rescue Plan Reengaging Students Through CTE

This was crossposted from the U.S. Department of Education’s blog, Homeroom

By Braden Goetz, OCTAE; Levi Bohanan & Sophie Maher, OESE

High school students are gaining new opportunities to participate in career and technical education (CTE) and prepare for in-demand jobs like teaching as a result of President Biden’s $122 billion American Rescue Plan Elementary and Secondary School Emergency Relief Fund (ARP ESSER). High-quality CTE programs can boost school engagement, on-time graduation and academic learning by giving students hands-on opportunities to apply classroom-learned knowledge and skills. In the process, CTE can be a launch pad to in-demand high-quality careers that simultaneously address labor market needs.

Completing a sequence of CTE courses is associated with higher rates of on-time graduation and postsecondary education enrollment. One study using a causal design found that male students enrolled in an information technology (IT) career academy in North Carolina had fewer absences in ninth grade and were more likely to graduate on-time and enroll in postsecondary education than peers who attended a regular comprehensive high school. Another study using causal design found that students attending one of New York City’s Pathways in Technology Early College High Schools (P-TECH) were more likely than their counterparts at regular high schools to pass the state’s high school English Language Arts exam with a score that qualified them to participate in dual enrollment courses—at the end of two years of high school.

High-quality CTE programs like those offered by New York City’s P-TECH schools and the North Carolina IT academy grow from strong partnerships between school districts, employers, and community colleges and other institutions of higher education. These CTE programs are focused on preparing students for in-demand careers that pay family-sustaining wages. Students take an integrated sequence of technical and academic courses that include opportunities to participate in work-based learning and to earn postsecondary credit or industry-recognized credentials.

In approved ARP ESSER state plans, some states have identified expanding CTE opportunities as a strategy in their state-level efforts to return students to the classroom safely, engage them in learning, and equitably address the disruptions to teaching and learning caused by the pandemic. A state must subgrant no less than 90 percent of ARP ESSER funds to school districts. Up to ten percent of the ARP ESSER funds awarded to state educational agencies may be used for state-level activities. This includes a requirement that states set aside at least 5 percent of their funds to address the impact of lost instructional time, at least 1 percent for summer enrichment programs, and at least 1 percent for afterschool programs—and all these resources must be used for evidence-based interventions that address the needs of students most impacted by the pandemic.

For example, last summer, approximately 2,300 youth participated in the New Mexico’s Summer Enrichment Internship Program. Youth worked 20 hours per week for 6 weeks in dozens of paid career opportunities. NMPED used $9.89 million of its ARP ESSER allocation to support the initiative. In its approved ARP ESSER state plan, NMPED also indicates that it will award funds to community-based organizations to implement evidence-based afterschool programs to students, some of which will include paid internships for high school students.

Ohio reports that it will use ARP ESSER state-level funds for several CTE-related initiatives, including Work-Based Learning Incentive Grants that will be awarded to local workforce development boards “to incentivize employers to develop high school on-the-job internship, pre-apprenticeship and apprenticeship opportunities for students.”

Florida intends to use funds available to address lost instructional time for a Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Accelerator project. Florida plans to engage experts in the field to develop state standards for computer science as well as evidence-based practices to implement these standards.

North Dakota reports in its approved state plan that it will use ARP ESSER funds to “create a pathway for high school students, including members of groups that have been traditionally underrepresented, to gain knowledge and work experiences in the education field.” Through this pathway, students will be given opportunities to earn college credit in the education field while in high school at public schools across the state.

The ARP ESSER funds that are awarded by state educational agencies to local educational agencies (LEAs) help meet a wide range of needs arising from the coronavirus pandemic, including reopening schools safely, sustaining their safe operation, and at least 20 percent of each LEA’s allocation must be used for evidence-based interventions that address the impact of lost instructional time by addressing students’ social, emotional, mental health, and academic needs resulting from the pandemic. These funds also may be used by LEAs for CTE programs and other activities authorized by the Carl D. Perkins Career and Technical Education Act of 2006.

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Cultivating Mentorship Opportunities in Hayward Promise Neighborhoods

This was crossposted from the U.S. Department of Education’s blog, Homeroom

cultivating mentorship opportunities in hayward promise neighborhoods

By Edgar Chavez, Executive Director, Hayward Promise Neighborhoods

Mentorship is an opportunity to help others feel seen and explore all possibilities for their future. Reflecting on my work with young people for over a decade, I didn’t always see the power of these principles. As leaders, we tend to lead with outcomes rather than relationships. To see ourselves and others in our wholeness means also understanding past and present forces that shape our everyday experiences so that we may be open to new possibilities, especially during these anxious times.

Hayward Promise Neighborhoods (HPN) has leveraged its unique educational assets to nurture community-sustaining mentorship opportunities with students and families. For nearly a decade and two U.S. Department of Education grants, our 11-partner collaborative led by Cal State East Bay (CSUEB) has worked to bring our institutions closer to our families and communities. The pandemic has highlighted persistent inequities across our schools and neighborhoods, primarily working-class communities of color, which experienced COVID-19 transmission rates that ranked among the top in the Bay Area. Despite the move to distance learning, our partners continued to provide virtual spaces for mentorship and social-emotional learning while building the capacity of our schools and partners through monthly convenings. In 2021, our HPN partners documented over 9,373 points of contact with students through dozens of school and community-based activities from birth to college.

HPN partners like Chabot College and CSUEB place college students—most of the Hayward graduates—as interns in HPN schools to create mentorship experiences through student identity-based courses and activities. College mentors serve as aids in African American Literature and English learner courses for Latinx and Afghan students, and lead enrichment clubs to help students develop a college-going identity, such as Chavez Chicxs (female and non-binary Latinx students), Pacific Islanders Unite, and STEAM Team. Students who are the first in their families to go to college have a safe space to explore their cultural identity and the possibilities of pursuing postsecondary education. At the same time, college mentors are navigating their first-generation identity and sense of belonging on college campuses by giving back to their school communities. Robin Galas, the Director of TRIO, a federally funded program to support students from disadvantaged backgrounds, and HPN programs at Chabot College, says that in these spaces, mentors and students are told, “You get to redefine who is a college student. Your very presence defines what it means to be a college student.” HPN continues the mentorship pipeline for Hayward graduates at CSUEB with a Student Success Coach from the community, where we have seen a 32% increase in enrollment, including Chabot transfers, and more students earning above a 2.5 GPA from 61% to 81% since 2018.

By adopting a dual-capacity approach to mentorship, we create mutually reinforcing mentorship experiences integrated into learning contexts and sustained by community connections. As students navigate the educational pipeline, they take on mentorship roles to their younger peers and, together, explore new possibilities for their futures as college-goers and educators. With COVID-19 continuing to disrupt student learning and wellbeing, we have an opportunity to focus on the needs of both educators and students by providing them with the tools and frameworks that meet them where they are right now.

I grew up in unincorporated Hayward as an English Learner. Local teachers, mentors, and college programs inspired me to be the first in my generation to earn a bachelor’s and graduate degree. Many of us return or stay in our communities when we do not see more of us in postsecondary and professional spaces. As a director during these times, I see my role in sustaining learning and leadership environments where our identities are a source of strength and where we can imagine new possibilities for each other and future generations.

Mentoring in the Time of COVID

This was cross-posted from the U.S Department of Education blog, Homeroom

blog: mentoring in the time of COVID

By Catherine López, M.A., M.Ed., LDT, CALT,  Certified Academic Language Therapist and Bilingual Content Interventionist working for the Austin Independent School District

Quality mentoring programs are more necessary than ever. Attracting and retaining new teachers has gone from being a serious problem to an acute crisis. Districts that seek to curb attrition rates in their ranks need structured programs that can help fledgling teachers during the first two to three years of their career.

I did not have a mentor when I was a novice teacher and struggled mightily, so during my seventh year as a teacher when asked to mentor a first-year teacher I agreed, not wanting anyone to unnecessarily suffer like I did. I have been mentoring novice teachers ever since. Mentoring during pre-pandemic years included meeting with novice teachers to instruct them on concepts crucial to their success in the classroom, such as the basics of classroom management and the components of a strong academic lesson. I helped with identifying students that may have needed evaluation for special services such as Special Education or Gifted and Talented enrichment and navigating the often-labyrinthine bureaucracy related to those responsibilities.

COVID-19 erased 20 years of mentoring experience in the blink of an eye. The pandemic made us all novices again. I no longer had as many answers as I once did. I could be a sounding board for ideas and a sympathetic ear. But could I help them create a dynamic lesson on Canvas? Could I help them get the most out of Seesaw? No. Did anybody know how to slay the monster that was “simultaneous teaching” (teaching in-person and virtual students at the same time)? I felt like I couldn’t help at all. I was scrambling to figure out the basics alongside the novice teachers and everyone else. I know now that mentoring conversations will cover the same topics as they did before, however, now I must also include strategizing with mentees on how to cope with being overwhelmed and their mental health, while taking my own advice. This comes in the way of helping mentees set small, attainable goals, prioritizing tasks, as well as coaching them and modeling how to set boundaries at work. I also recognize that pandemic mentoring has been more mutually beneficial than before.

It is no secret that first or second career teachers, traditional or alternatively certified teachers, or foreign educated teachers are all expected to perform on target immediately. Successful mentoring programs pair new teachers with a veteran teacher in a matching field/grade that can provide frequent, long-term coaching. A vital part of successful mentoring is protected dedicated time and class coverage, so the mentor teacher may observe the mentee teaching to engage in a recursive process of inquiry and reflection. It’s also important that mentors are paid for their indispensable service and in amounts that recognize their expertise in teaching and coaching. These actions can increase not only instructional quality in mentees’ classrooms, but the likelihood that the mentee will return the following year or make teaching a life-long career. Districts should value their teaching staff and the charge of educating students enough to assume the responsibility for formally training mentors. The crucible of COVID-19 will forever change the American educational system. Creating or bolstering mentoring programs should be the keystone to reform efforts. After all, if the teachers are okay, then the kids will be okay.

Equity in Action

This was crossposted from the Institute for Education Sciences Regional Educational Laboratory West Blog.


It didn’t take long before the consequences of the pandemic shone a spotlight on the growing inequities within our communities and systems. Existing disparities in housing and food security, education, and health care, for example, grew wider between socioeconomic and racial groups.[1][2][3][4] At the same time, a racial reckoning across the nation was a reminder that systemic racism and injustices persist.

With compounded stress and trauma, vulnerable students and families became more at risk for disengaging from school and the school community.[5] Many school and district leaders sought to create safe and healthy environments for their students and families, who were feeling increasingly disconnected mentally, emotionally, or physically.


When the Regional Educational Laboratory (REL) West led a webinar in May 2020 on strategies for engaging vulnerable students and their families during remote schooling, participants conveyed the urgency of the situation. Many in attendance raised the need to address the causes of implicit bias and systemic racism, particularly given the current climate of racial injustices. One participant said, “We have to be intentional about discussing inequities. We have to be able to call out where the challenges are and move out of our comfort zones to shift outcomes.”

“We have to be able to call out where the challenges are and move out of our comfort zones to shift outcomes.”

REL West heard from multiple district leaders, who wanted more information and guidance about asset-based strategies for reshaping their district systems and structures in order to promote equitable learning environments. Specifically, these districts wanted to know how to identify and change existing policies and practices which reinforce inequities, especially those that are barriers to success for Black and Latinx students and their families. They wanted to enact change so that Black and Latinx members of their school community will feel a greater sense of belongingness and believe that their cultural identities are valued as assets and strengths.


In response to these requests, REL West formed the Equity in Action project. The project involved five California school districts committed to racial equity change. REL West leads Erin Browder and Lori Van Houten (along with team members Margit Birge, Rebeca Cerna, and Kamilah Wilson) supported these districts through coaching and facilitation. The project aimed to help these districts:

  1. Understand the assets and needs of Black and Latinx stakeholders in their district.
  2. Learn to develop and leverage racial equity plans created by diverse district teams.
  3. Ensure that racial equity is at the center of efforts to revamp district structures and supports so that Black and Latinx students and families are engaged and thriving.

The overarching goal for these districts was to increase the safety, well-being, and engagement of Black and Latinx students and their families. More specifically, each district identified its own improvement area focused on racial equity change for Black and Latinx stakeholders and developed a theory of action for that improvement area.

Over the course of the project, the districts refined their theories of actions to focus on addressing a systemic problem. For example, one elementary school district in the Central Valley initially aimed to increase participation and engagement of Latinx families in school events by focusing on recruitment of Latinx families. Later, the district team shifted its focus to implementing culturally responsive practices that would make their schools more inviting to Latinx families and improve their sense of belonging. A second school district in Los Angeles County initially set out to establish an African American Advisory Committee (AAAC) to engage and support Black students and families primarily through more school and district events. Later, the district team shifted to supporting teachers and staff with culturally and linguistically responsive (CLR) training to implement CLR practices throughout school sites. The district team leveraged the AAAC to communicate with students and families about CLR and expected changes in adult practices at schools. “Our focus,” Browder shared, “was on addressing and changing adult practices, not ‘fixing’ students and families.”


REL West designed the Equity in Action project to support these five districts through an equity-focused process. REL West facilitators Browder and Van Houten wanted to provide responsive coaching to the districts to ensure that they were meeting teams where they were. Accordingly, the facilitators utilized participant feedback and ongoing dialogue with each district’s team leads to inform the activities of the next successive coaching session toward building capacity for racial equity change.

REL West’s equity-focused process, involving a variety of knowledge- and skill-building activities, helped each district tackle its racial equity work. Initial REL West-led sessions intentionally focused on forming district equity teams that were diverse in ethnicity and roles, as well as understanding the research on important concepts of educational equity, racial equity, racial trauma, and systemic racism. These steps in the Equity in Action process enabled district teams to develop common knowledge and a shared language as they began to uncover the root causes of particular inequities. Additionally, REL West facilitators coached the district teams on how to conduct courageous conversations using conversation protocols with probing questions to examine equity mindsets and unearth bias-based beliefs.[6]

To further build the capacity of the district teams, REL West introduced equity-centered tools and processes so that teams could gather information through stakeholder interviews, map assets, and collect and summarize data to inform changes to practices and policies. Finally, through REL West coaching, each district team defined its theory of improvement for changing an adult practice, related to its identified disparity or inequity, and developed an implementation plan.

As REL West continued coaching the district teams, both individually and as a cohort, the district teams acquired an equity-focused process to replicate on their own for any racial disparities they identified. From the onset, REL West aimed to help districts prepare for and sustain equity change work as they engaged in developing and acquiring habits of goal-setting, collecting and using data to inform policy and practices, and communicating findings on racial equity to stakeholders.


While the districts are still implementing new strategies to reach their long-term goals around equity, the REL West facilitators believe that the project has achieved its more immediate objectives of building district staff capacity to engage in an equity change process. “The Equity in Action participants were able to build a shared language and understanding of equity-related concepts and practices,” said Browder. Van Houten added, “And they’ll be able to apply tools and processes that they now have to other racial equity efforts.”

“The Equity in Action participants were able to build a shared language and understanding of equity-related concepts and practices.” —Erin Browder

Feedback from the district teams about the project and their capacity to work on racial change was overwhelmingly positive. Team members reported that they have gained skills to use research and data on racial equity to inform district policies and practices, as well as to communicate effectively about equity-related data and findings to families, teachers, staff, and administrators.

Many participants in the project noted these positive takeaways:

  • Having expert facilitation and knowledgeable coaching is invaluable. Coaches can help to facilitate equity-related learning, which is often new and challenging for district teams. Comments from district team members included, “It was most helpful to have experts in implementation science, with the tools to support how to go about this work. Having individualized support was very helpful.” Another participant noted, “Having a coach there to push our thinking as well as be a scribe capturing our thinking was extremely helpful.”
  • Focusing on a specific racial equity area allowed for deep exploration. By examining biases and how they shape policies and practices, the teams unpacked the causes of the inequities they want to change. One member said the process was “a great way to reflect and really dive in and learn more about this work before implementing it.”
  • Doing equity work with a diverse district team is beneficial. Forming a team that is diverse in ethnicity and roles contributes to decisionmaking informed by multiple perspectives. One team member wrote, “Coming together as a team worked really well as each one of us comes from a different background and has had different experiences and, therefore, different lenses.”
  • Collaborating with and learning from other districts is supportive. The cross-district design of the Equity in Action project provided useful support, as one participant commented, “It was nice to hear from other districts as a reminder that we’re not alone in wanting change, and that it takes time and it’s complicated.”

One lesson learned was that the work of racial equity change requires ample time. Equity team members need time to build trust, especially if they have not worked together previously on the topic of racial equity. Additionally, team sessions require sufficient time to engage deeply in all of the components of an equity-focused process.

By the end of the project’s eight months, each team had identified a theory of action, developed an implementation plan, and determined implementation and outcome benchmarks to measure progress. Van Houten confirmed, “Participants saw how all the parts of the system — beliefs, practices, and policies — fit together to address racial inequities.”


The following REL West resources were developed for the Equity in Action project and may be useful resources to district teams engaging in equity change work.

Equity in Action—Tools

  • Building a District Equity Team. A worksheet with guiding questions for forming a district equity team with members representing different identities, roles, knowledge, and skills.
  • Bias-Based Beliefs Resource. A reflection protocol to guide individuals or a team through examination of biased-based beliefs and behaviors.
  • Communication and Engagement Plan. A two-part tool containing a framework, guiding questions, and worksheets for developing a communication and engagement plan with different stakeholder groups.

Equity in Action—PowerPoint slides


By Pamela Fong, REL West

[1] Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. (2021, October). Tracking the COVID-19 economy’s effects on food, housing, and employment hardships. Retrieved from

[2] Wolfson, J. A., & Leung, C. W. (2020). Food insecurity and COVID-19: Disparities in early effects for US adults. Nutrients, 12(6), Article 1648. Retrieved from

[3] Pier, L., Hough, H., Christian, M., Bookman, N., Wilkenfeld, B., & Miller, R. (2021, January). COVID-19 and the educational equity crisis: Evidence on learning loss from the CORE Data Collaborative. Stanford, CA: Policy Analysis for California Education. Retrieved from

[4] Thakur, N., Lovinsky-Desir, S., Bime, C., et al. (2020). The structural and social determinants of the racial/ethnic disparities in the U.S. COVID-19 pandemic. What’s our role? American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 202. Retrieved from

[5] Minkos, M. L., & Gelbar, N. W. (2020). Considerations for educators in supporting student learning in the midst of COVID-19. Psychology in the Schools, 10.1002/pits.22454. Retrieved from

[6] Fergus, E. (2019). Confronting our beliefs about poverty and discipline. Phi Delta Kappan,100(5), 31–34.

Celebrating Hispanic Heritage in Education

This was crossposted from the Institute of Education Sciences blog, Inside IES Research.

Hispanic Heritage Month was celebrated from September 15 to October 15 this year. There was much to be thankful for, but also much work still to do. In our work at the Center for the Success of ELs (CSEL), an IES funded National Research and Development Center, our team is diligently working to clarify issues related to English learner (EL) classification and achievement, as well as the special challenges brought on by the pandemic, and to identify future challenges to which we must turn our attention.

Proper Accounting for ELs and their Achievement

The linguistic diversity of our student population is remarkable. Over 300 languages other than English are spoken in U.S. homes with Spanish by far the most common. Although many student and school factors influence time to English proficiency, we do not celebrate often enough the significant accomplishments of these language minority students, including those who enter school as proficient English speakers, but especially those who achieve proficiency in English through their hard work in school and that of their teachers and families.  Many students with Hispanic heritage who are designated as language minority students enter U.S. schools in kindergarten fully proficient in English and are never designated as ELs within the school system. Many more who are initially designated as ELs become proficient in English within 3-5 years of entering US schools.

Our persistent focus on those students not yet proficient in English has merit. Focus placed on students during this stage of their development can improve progress towards English proficiency and student outcomes when students receive access to appropriate instruction and supports that afford access to grade level content. However, to focus exclusively on the achievement of students who are not yet proficient in English fails to recognize the temporary nature of this stage of development for most ELs. This skews our understanding of the achievement of ELs and undermines student efforts toward educational attainment and school efforts to foster that development. This deficit orientation in accounting and reporting creates an aura of inferiority that is at once unwarranted, unhelpful, and unnecessary.

Reclassification Should be Celebrated

Excluding reclassified students from analyses of EL achievement presents a misleading picture and ignores countless individual successes. Numerous studies, including work funded by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and IES within our group, have found that ELs who have attained proficiency in English perform at least as well as peers who were never designated as ELs. In fact, this comparability appears to be present for many ELs who remain classified as ELs but are scoring in the top performance band of the English proficiency test. The same cannot be said for students who have not yet achieved high levels of English proficiency.

The significant accomplishments of our ELs receive too little attention in our reports and conversations about education. Unfortunately, this statement is true for Hispanic students as well as for students from the hundreds of other language backgrounds who populate our diverse schools. This year, as schools and districts announce their valedictorians, college bound students, rising elementary and middle school students and other academic accomplishments, we should take note of how many of these students began school as ELs and celebrate their success—an outcome achieved by the hard work of teachers and students.

New and Unprecedented Challenges for EL Education

“This is the worst educational crisis ever seen in the region, and we are worried that there could be serious and lasting consequences for a whole generation, especially for the most vulnerable sectors.”  Carlos Felipe Jaramillo, World Bank VP for Latin America and the Caribbean

Despite these successes and our general optimism for the post-pandemic educational system, there are significant challenges on the horizon as we consider educational practices for ELs. In March 2021, UNICEF estimated that total and partial school closures in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) had left approximately 114 million students in the region without face-to-face schooling. The impact of these school closures is particularly devastating in a region in which the majority of students did not achieve basic proficiency in reading, math, and writing prior to the pandemic. The World Bank estimates that as many as 71% of lower secondary education students in the region may not achieve basic levels of reading proficiency following this pandemic. Their educational risk is further compounded by twin crises of violence and poverty across the region.

This regional crisis is already felt in U.S. schools. Immigration data document a sharp increase in the number of families and unaccompanied minors from Latin America entering the US this past spring. This fall and beyond, U.S. schools will face the challenge of meeting the educational and social emotional needs of these at-risk immigrant youth but must do so with limited guidance from the research community on effective educational programs for newcomer English learners. Previous research with students who entered schools at a young age as ELs may not reliably generalize to students arriving at an older age following the COVID-19 pandemic. Due to the pandemic and other socio-political challenges, many newcomers have interrupted formal educations, speak very little or no English on school entry, and may demonstrate academic weaknesses in their native language. A significant number are fleeing crises of violence and poverty with related psychological trauma that impacts learning.

Fortunately, this critical gap in research is explicitly acknowledged in the most recent Request for Applications for the National Center for Special Education Research, who set aside their research funding for the current year to specifically address educational challenges linked to the pandemic. Meeting the critical need for evidence-based strategies to ensure successful outcomes for newcomer ELs at significant educational risk will require everyone’s best efforts. The LAC region was disrupted more than any other region on the globe, experiencing the world’s longest school closures and inconsistent or non-existent remote learning options in the context of the deepest recession in decades. The learning loss resulting from this pandemic-related disruption is likely to be deep and pervasive, increasing school dropout and negatively impacting wellness and mental health.

As we take stock and celebrate the joy and enrichment that Hispanic heritage brings to everyone in the US, regardless of their own heritage, let us commit to doing all we can to ensure the academic success and socio-emotional health of our ELs in the United States.  In doing so, let’s also keep in mind that these students willingly face many challenges in pursuit of their own American Dream, and their success in this pursuit benefits us all.

This year, Inside IES Research is publishing a series of interviews (see here and hereshowcasing a diverse group of IES-funded education researchers and fellows that are making significant contributions to education research, policy, and practice. As part of our Hispanic Heritage Month blog serieswe are focusing on Hispanic researchers and fellows, as well as researchers that focus on the education of Hispanic students.

David J. Francis is the Hugh Roy and Lillie Cranz Cullen Distinguished University Chair of Quantitative Methods in the Department of Psychology at the University of University. He is also the Director of the Texas Institute for Measurement, Evaluation, and Statistics (TIMES) and the Director of the IES-funded Center for the Success of English Learners National Research and Development Center.

Jeremy Miciak is an associate research professor at the University of Houston in the Department of Psychology and at the Texas Institute for Measurement, Evaluation, and Statistics (TIMES). He is also a co-investigator on the IES-funded Center for the Success of English Learners National Research and Development Center.

Produced by Katina Stapleton (, co-Chair of the IES Diversity and Inclusion Council and Helyn Kim (, Program Officer at the National Center for Education Research for the ELs portfolio.

Equity Snapshot: Apprenticeships in America

This was crossposted from the U.S. Department of Labor’s blog.

At the Department of Labor, we’re committed to advancing equity across all the programs and populations we support, including our efforts to increase awareness of and opportunities in apprenticeship — a proven industry-driven career pathway where employers can develop their future workforce and workers can get critical experience through paid and credentialed programs.

Though less common in the U.S. than in Europe, U.S. apprenticeship participation is on the rise. In fiscal year 2020 alone, 3,143 new programs were established, representing a 73% increase from 2009, and the number of active Registered Apprentices grew by 51% in the same period. And these programs are incredibly successful: 92% of apprentices retain employment after completing a Registered Apprenticeship and earn an average starting salary of $72,000.

Though apprenticeships have a proven track record of producing strong results for both employers and workers, we still have a long way to go toward advancing equity in apprenticeship participation. In this equity snapshot, we explore what data we have and what we still need to know to ensure apprenticeship programs are equitably serving all populations. Here are some of our key findings:

Though most apprentices are white, programs have become more diverse over time

According to demographic data provided by 686,000 apprentices between 2010 and 2019, 77.5% identified as white, 15.3% as Black, 2.9% American Indian/Alaska Native, 2.1% Asian, 1.6% Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander, and 0.5% as multi-racial.  With regard to ethnicity, 567,000 apprentices provided information with 18.3% identifying as Hispanic.

But as Figure 1 shows, apprentices have become more diverse over time. This suggests that efforts to boost participation and equity are working — but there’s still more work to be done.


Share of Apprenticeship Participants 2010 vs. 2019

Figure 1. Share of Apprenticeship Participants 2010 vs. 2019 (plain text)

For many racial groups, apprentice representation was higher than overall labor force participation

When comparing apprenticeship participation to the annual average share of labor force participation across all racial groups (Figure 2), we found Black apprentice representation was higher than their labor force representation in 17 industries, and American Indian or Alaska Native apprentices and Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islanders outpaced average representation in 18 industries. This includes construction apprentices, where racial group participation rates mirrored the civilian workforce.


Figure 2: Comparison of Apprenticeship Distribution and Labor Force

Figure 2. Comparison of Apprenticeship Distribution and Labor Force (plain text)

However, representation of Asian apprentices and apprentices of two or more races fall well below their labor force share

Though some apprentice groups outpaced their peers in the general labor force, this was not the case for Asian apprentices. Whether these issues are structural we aren’t able to address, but we did identify two important issues to note: First, the grouping of Asian sub-groups into a single category may mask additional inequities among these various sub-groups. Second, there are possible identification issues associated with apprentices of two or more races, since survey respondents may self-select into a single racial group without being made aware of the multi-racial category — both of which should be addressed by follow-up surveys to correct and update the data.

Hispanic representation among apprentices is on the rise

Apprentices identifying as Hispanic represented 18.3% of all apprentices from 2010-2019, with an average annual proportion of 15.5%. Hispanic representation among apprentices has been increasing between 2010 and 2019, with the largest jump in representation in 2017 from 14.4 to 22.4%.  The overall labor force participation of Hispanics during this time was 16.3%, demonstrating that that though Hispanics hare overrepresented in Registered Apprenticeship programs, they have historically been underrepresented in the labor force overall.

Black apprentices are less likely to complete apprenticeship programs than their white peers

From an equity standpoint, there should be no significant difference in apprenticeship completion rates for individuals of various racial groups or by gender, but our data indicated that this is not the case. While completion rates are below 35% for all racial groups, which speak to the general difficulty of apprenticeships, completion rates for White apprentices reached 33% but only 24% for Black apprentices. Asian apprentices are the only other group to eclipse 30% completion, which suggests that there are factors in play that are negatively affecting completion equity.

Women make up only a small portion of apprentices

Historically, women have not been well represented in apprenticeship programs or in construction industries (where many apprenticeships exist) in general. Between 2010 and 2019, women accounted for an average of 8.5% of apprentices, and only 3.5% of construction apprentices. One study indicated that difficulties securing childcare and lack of pay for classroom instruction were significant barriers to participation and completion of apprenticeship programs – a common narrative for not only apprenticeships, but labor force participation in general.

Additional data is necessary to conduct a full equity analysis

Though our analysis yielded some helpful insights, we uncovered gaps in available data, making a full analysis of apprenticeship equity difficult. For example, we are only able to collect demographic information from program participants and not from applications, and the percentage of apprentices who did not provide demographic information recently jumped from 0 to 10 percent, leaving us with an incomplete picture of the full apprenticeship landscape.

Additionally, as mentioned above, our existing data can’t tell us which Asian and Hispanic sub-groups apprentices identify as, which is necessary to identify and address systemic issues facing these groups. And finally, racial groups are not uniformly distributed across the United States, meaning that we should account for geographic concentrations of various populations to get a better sense of apprenticeship accessibility and labor mobility.

These are just a few examples of what we know (and what we don’t) when it comes to assessing equity across apprenticeship programs. We can’t address what we don’t measure and improving the collection and quality of our data will help us better identify where we are making progress and where we need to improve — in our apprenticeship programs and beyond.

Read our full Apprenticeship Equity Snapshot Memo here.

Janelle Jones is the chief economist, Alexander Hertel-Fernandez is the deputy assistant secretary for research and evaluation, and Christopher DeCarlo is an economist at the U.S. Department of Labor.


Figure 1. Share of Apprenticeship Participants 2010 vs. 2019

Racial Group Share of All Apprenticeships 2010 Share of All Apprenticeships 2019 Percent Change in Apprenticeship Share
American Indian or Alaska Native 3.4% 1.8% -46.3%
Asian 1.7% 2.2% 27.9%
Black or African American 12.8% 17.1% 33.3%
Two or More Races 0.0% 1.4% 3248.1%
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander 1.4% 1.3% -6.4%
White 80.7% 76.2% -5.6%


Figure 2. Comparison of Apprenticeship Distribution and Labor Force

Racial Group Annual Average Apprenticeship Share
Annual Average Share of Labor Force
Change in Share of Labor Force
American Indian or Alaska Native 3.1% 1.0% 43.8%
Asian 2.1% 5.6% 35.8%
Black or African American 14.9% 12.2% 8.7%
Two or More Races* 0.4% 1.9% 20.8%
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander 1.6% 0.4% 40.6%
White 78.1% 79.1% -4.8%

(*) Labor force data for individuals of two or more races is available only back to 2015.