(d) Individualized education programs
- In this chapter:
- The term “individualized education program” or “IEP” means a written statement for each child with a disability that is developed, reviewed, and revised in accordance with this section and that includes—
- (I) a statement of the child’s present levels of academic achievement and functional performance, including—
- (aa) how the child’s disability affects the child’s involvement and progress in the general education curriculum;
- (bb) for preschool children, as appropriate, how the disability affects the child’s participation in appropriate activities; and
- (cc) for children with disabilities who take alternate assessments aligned to alternate achievement standards, a description of benchmarks or short-term objectives;
- (II) a statement of measurable annual goals, including academic and functional goals, designed to—
- (aa) meet the child’s needs that result from the child’s disability to enable the child to be involved in and make progress in the general education curriculum; and
- (bb) meet each of the child’s other educational needs that result from the child’s disability;
- (III) a description of how the child’s progress toward meeting the annual goals described in subclause (II) will be measured and when periodic reports on the progress the child is making toward meeting the annual goals (such as through the use of quarterly or other periodic reports, concurrent with the issuance of report cards) will be provided;
- (IV) a statement of the special education and related services and supplementary aids and services, based on peer-reviewed research to the extent practicable, to be provided to the child, or on behalf of the child, and a statement of the program modifications or supports for school personnel that will be provided for the child—
- (aa) to advance appropriately toward attaining the annual goals;
- (bb) to be involved in and make progress in the general education curriculum in accordance with subclause (I) and to participate in extracurricular and other nonacademic activities; and
- (cc) to be educated and participate with other children with disabilities and nondisabled children in the activities described in this subparagraph;
- (V) an explanation of the extent, if any, to which the child will not participate with nondisabled children in the regular class and in the activities described in subclause (IV)(cc);
- (aa) a statement of any individual appropriate accommodations that are necessary to measure the academic achievement and functional performance of the child on State and districtwide assessments consistent with section 1412(a)(16)(A) of this title; and
- (bb) if the IEP Team determines that the child shall take an alternate assessment on a particular State or districtwide assessment of student achievement, a statement of why—
- (AA) the child cannot participate in the regular assessment; and
- (BB) the particular alternate assessment selected is appropriate for the child;
- (VII) the projected date for the beginning of the services and modifications described in subclause (IV), and the anticipated frequency, location, and duration of those services and modifications; and
- (VIII) beginning not later than the first IEP to be in effect when the child is 16, and updated annually thereafter—
- (aa) appropriate measurable postsecondary goals based upon age appropriate transition assessments related to training, education, employment, and, where appropriate, independent living skills;
- (bb) the transition services (including courses of study) needed to assist the child in reaching those goals; and
- (cc) beginning not later than 1 year before the child reaches the age of majority under State law, a statement that the child has been informed of the child’s rights under this chapter, if any, that will transfer to the child on reaching the age of majority under section 1415(m) of this title.
- Nothing in this section shall be construed to require—
- The term “individualized education program team” or “IEP Team” means a group of individuals composed of—
- (i) the parents of a child with a disability;
- (ii) not less than 1 regular education teacher of such child (if the child is, or may be, participating in the regular education environment);
- (iii) not less than 1 special education teacher, or where appropriate, not less than 1 special education provider of such child;
- (iv) a representative of the local educational agency who—
- (I) is qualified to provide, or supervise the provision of, specially designed instruction to meet the unique needs of children with disabilities;
- (II) is knowledgeable about the general education curriculum; and
- (III) is knowledgeable about the availability of resources of the local educational agency;
- (v) an individual who can interpret the instructional implications of evaluation results, who may be a member of the team described in clauses (ii) through (vi);
- (vi) at the discretion of the parent or the agency, other individuals who have knowledge or special expertise regarding the child, including related services personnel as appropriate; and
- (vii) whenever appropriate, the child with a disability.
- A member of the IEP Team shall not be required to attend an IEP meeting, in whole or in part, if the parent of a child with a disability and the local educational agency agree that the attendance of such member is not necessary because the member’s area of the curriculum or related services is not being modified or discussed in the meeting.
- A member of the IEP Team may be excused from attending an IEP meeting, in whole or in part, when the meeting involves a modification to or discussion of the member’s area of the curriculum or related services, if—
- (I) the parent and the local educational agency consent to the excusal; and
- (II) the member submits, in writing to the parent and the IEP Team, input into the development of the IEP prior to the meeting.
- A parent’s agreement under clause (i) and consent under clause (ii) shall be in writing.
- In the case of a child who was previously served under subchapter III, an invitation to the initial IEP meeting shall, at the request of the parent, be sent to the subchapter III service coordinator or other representatives of the subchapter III system to assist with the smooth transition of services.
(A) Individualized education program
(i) In general
(ii) Rule of construction
(B) Individualized education program team
(C) IEP Team attendance
(i) Attendance not necessary
(iii) Written agreement and consent required
(D) IEP Team transition
(2) Requirement that program be in effect
- At the beginning of each school year, each local educational agency, State educational agency, or other State agency, as the case may be, shall have in effect, for each child with a disability in the agency’s jurisdiction, an individualized education program, as defined in paragraph (1)(A).
- In the case of a child with a disability aged 3 through 5 (or, at the discretion of the State educational agency, a 2-year-old child with a disability who will turn age 3 during the school year), the IEP Team shall consider the individualized family service plan that contains the material described in section 1436 of this title, and that is developed in accordance with this section, and the individualized family service plan may serve as the IEP of the child if using that plan as the IEP is—
- In the case of a child with a disability who transfers school districts within the same academic year, who enrolls in a new school, and who had an IEP that was in effect in the same State, the local educational agency shall provide such child with a free appropriate public education, including services comparable to those described in the previously held IEP, in consultation with the parents until such time as the local educational agency adopts the previously held IEP or develops, adopts, and implements a new IEP that is consistent with Federal and State law.
- In the case of a child with a disability who transfers school districts within the same academic year, who enrolls in a new school, and who had an IEP that was in effect in another State, the local educational agency shall provide such child with a free appropriate public education, including services comparable to those described in the previously held IEP, in consultation with the parents until such time as the local educational agency conducts an evaluation pursuant to subsection (a)(1), if determined to be necessary by such agency, and develops a new IEP, if appropriate, that is consistent with Federal and State law.
- To facilitate the transition for a child described in clause (i)—
- (I) the new school in which the child enrolls shall take reasonable steps to promptly obtain the child’s records, including the IEP and supporting documents and any other records relating to the provision of special education or related services to the child, from the previous school in which the child was enrolled, pursuant to section 99.31(a)(2) of title 34, Code of Federal Regulations; and
- (II) the previous school in which the child was enrolled shall take reasonable steps to promptly respond to such request from the new school.
(A) In general
(B) Program for child aged 3 through 5
(C) Program for children who transfer school districts
(i) In general
(I) Transfer within the same State
(II) Transfer outside State
(ii) Transmittal of records
(3) Development of IEP
- In developing each child’s IEP, the IEP Team, subject to subparagraph (C), shall consider—
- (i) the strengths of the child;
- (ii) the concerns of the parents for enhancing the education of their child;
- (iii) the results of the initial evaluation or most recent evaluation of the child; and
- (iv) the academic, developmental, and functional needs of the child.
- The IEP Team shall—
- (i) in the case of a child whose behavior impedes the child’s learning or that of others, consider the use of positive behavioral interventions and supports, and other strategies, to address that behavior;
- (ii) in the case of a child with limited English proficiency, consider the language needs of the child as such needs relate to the child’s IEP;
- (iii) in the case of a child who is blind or visually impaired, provide for instruction in Braille and the use of Braille unless the IEP Team determines, after an evaluation of the child’s reading and writing skills, needs, and appropriate reading and writing media (including an evaluation of the child’s future needs for instruction in Braille or the use of Braille), that instruction in Braille or the use of Braille is not appropriate for the child;
- (iv) consider the communication needs of the child, and in the case of a child who is deaf or hard of hearing, consider the child’s language and communication needs, opportunities for direct communications with peers and professional personnel in the child’s language and communication mode, academic level, and full range of needs, including opportunities for direct instruction in the child’s language and communication mode; and
- (v) consider whether the child needs assistive technology devices and services.
- A regular education teacher of the child, as a member of the IEP Team, shall, to the extent appropriate, participate in the development of the IEP of the child, including the determination of appropriate positive behavioral interventions and supports, and other strategies, and the determination of supplementary aids and services, program modifications, and support for school personnel consistent with paragraph (1)(A)(i)(IV).
- In making changes to a child’s IEP after the annual IEP meeting for a school year, the parent of a child with a disability and the local educational agency may agree not to convene an IEP meeting for the purposes of making such changes, and instead may develop a written document to amend or modify the child’s current IEP.
- To the extent possible, the local educational agency shall encourage the consolidation of reevaluation meetings for the child and other IEP Team meetings for the child.
- Changes to the IEP may be made either by the entire IEP Team or, as provided in subparagraph (D), by amending the IEP rather than by redrafting the entire IEP. Upon request, a parent shall be provided with a revised copy of the IEP with the amendments incorporated.
(A) In general
(B) Consideration of special factors
(C) Requirement with respect to regular education teacher
(E) Consolidation of IEP Team meetings
(4) Review and revision of IEP
- The local educational agency shall ensure that, subject to subparagraph (B), the IEP Team—
- (i) reviews the child’s IEP periodically, but not less frequently than annually, to determine whether the annual goals for the child are being achieved; and
- (ii) revises the IEP as appropriate to address—
- (I) any lack of expected progress toward the annual goals and in the general education curriculum, where appropriate;
- (II) the results of any reevaluation conducted under this section;
- (III) information about the child provided to, or by, the parents, as described in subsection (c)(1)(B);
- (IV) the child’s anticipated needs; or
- (V) other matters.
- A regular education teacher of the child, as a member of the IEP Team, shall, consistent with paragraph (1)(C), participate in the review and revision of the IEP of the child.
(A) In general
(B) Requirement with respect to regular education teacher
(5) Multi-year IEP demonstration
- The purpose of this paragraph is to provide an opportunity for States to allow parents and local educational agencies the opportunity for long-term planning by offering the option of developing a comprehensive multi-year IEP, not to exceed 3 years, that is designed to coincide with the natural transition points for the child.
- In order to carry out the purpose of this paragraph, the Secretary is authorized to approve not more than 15 proposals from States to carry out the activity described in clause (i).
- A State desiring to participate in the program under this paragraph shall submit a proposal to the Secretary at such time and in such manner as the Secretary may reasonably require.
- The proposal shall include—
- (aa) assurances that the development of a multi-year IEP under this paragraph is optional for parents;
- (bb) assurances that the parent is required to provide informed consent before a comprehensive multi-year IEP is developed;
- (cc) a list of required elements for each multi-year IEP, including—
- (AA) measurable goals pursuant to paragraph (1)(A)(i)(II), coinciding with natural transition points for the child, that will enable the child to be involved in and make progress in the general education curriculum and that will meet the child’s other needs that result from the child’s disability; and
- (BB) measurable annual goals for determining progress toward meeting the goals described in subitem (AA); and
- (dd) a description of the process for the review and revision of each multi-year IEP, including—
- (AA) a review by the IEP Team of the child’s multi-year IEP at each of the child’s natural transition points;
- (BB) in years other than a child’s natural transition points, an annual review of the child’s IEP to determine the child’s current levels of progress and whether the annual goals for the child are being achieved, and a requirement to amend the IEP, as appropriate, to enable the child to continue to meet the measurable goals set out in the IEP;
- (CC) if the IEP Team determines on the basis of a review that the child is not making sufficient progress toward the goals described in the multi-year IEP, a requirement that the local educational agency shall ensure that the IEP Team carries out a more thorough review of the IEP in accordance with paragraph (4) within 30 calendar days; and
- (DD) at the request of the parent, a requirement that the IEP Team shall conduct a review of the child’s multi-year IEP rather than or subsequent to an annual review.
- Beginning 2 years after December 3, 2004, the Secretary shall submit an annual report to the Committee on Education and the Workforce of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions of the Senate regarding the effectiveness of the program under this paragraph and any specific recommendations for broader implementation of such program, including—
- (i) reducing—
- (I) the paperwork burden on teachers, principals, administrators, and related service providers; and
- (II) noninstructional time spent by teachers in complying with this subchapter;
- (ii) enhancing longer-term educational planning;
- (iii) improving positive outcomes for children with disabilities;
- (iv) promoting collaboration between IEP Team members; and
- (v) ensuring satisfaction of family members.
- In this paragraph, the term “natural transition points” means those periods that are close in time to the transition of a child with a disability from preschool to elementary grades, from elementary grades to middle or junior high school grades, from middle or junior high school grades to secondary school grades, and from secondary school grades to post-secondary activities, but in no case a period longer than 3 years.
(A) Pilot program
(I) In general
(6) Failure to meet transition objectives
(7) Children with disabilities in adult prisons
- The following requirements shall not apply to children with disabilities who are convicted as adults under State law and incarcerated in adult prisons:
- (i) The requirements contained in section 1412(a)(16) of this title and paragraph (1)(A)(i)(VI) (relating to participation of children with disabilities in general assessments).
- (ii) The requirements of items (aa) and (bb) of paragraph (1)(A)(i)(VIII) (relating to transition planning and transition services), do not apply with respect to such children whose eligibility under this subchapter will end, because of such children’s age, before such children will be released from prison.
- If a child with a disability is convicted as an adult under State law and incarcerated in an adult prison, the child’s IEP Team may modify the child’s IEP or placement notwithstanding the requirements of sections 1 1412(a)(5)(A) of this title and paragraph (1)(A) if the State has demonstrated a bona fide security or compelling penological interest that cannot otherwise be accommodated.
(A) In general
(B) Additional requirement
Last modified on November 7, 2019