2023 Annual Report to Congress on the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)


IDEA, Parts B and C

This is the 45th Annual Report to Congress on the Implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, 2023. Section 664(d) of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), as reauthorized in 2004, requires that the Department of Education report annually on the progress made toward the provision of a free appropriate public education to all children with disabilities and the provision of early intervention services to infants and toddlers with disabilities.

The 45th Annual Report to Congress on the Implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, 2023 describes our nation’s progress in:

  1. providing a free appropriate public education (FAPE) for children with disabilities under IDEA, Part B, and early intervention services to infants and toddlers with disabilities and their families under IDEA, Part C;
  2. ensuring that the rights of these children with disabilities and their parents are protected;
  3. assisting States and localities in providing IDEA services to all children with disabilities; and
  4. assessing the effectiveness of efforts to provide IDEA services to children with disabilities.

The report focuses on children with disabilities being served under IDEA, Part B and Part C, nationally and at the State level.


Since the enactment of the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975 (EHA), Public Law (P.L.) 94‑142 and its successor statute, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA or Act), the Secretaries of the U.S. Department of Education (Secretary) and their predecessors, the Commissioners of Education at the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, have been required to transmit to Congress an annual report to inform Congress and the public of the progress made in implementing the Act. The annual reports to Congress reflect a history of persistent commitment and effort to expand educational access opportunities and improve outcomes for children with disabilities.

The most recent reauthorization of IDEA (P.L. 108-446) occurred in December 2004, and Section 664(d) of IDEA continues to require the annual report to Congress. With the reauthorization of IDEA, the nation reaffirmed its commitment to improving the early intervention and educational results and functional outcomes for infants, toddlers, children, and youths with disabilities (collectively, this group may be referred to in this report as “children with disabilities”).

The 45th Annual Report to Congress on the Implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, 2023[1] describes our nation’s progress in (1) providing a free appropriate public education (FAPE) for children with disabilities under IDEA, Part B, and early intervention services to infants and toddlers with disabilities and their families under IDEA, Part C; (2) ensuring that the rights of these children with disabilities and their parents are protected; (3) assisting States and localities in providing IDEA services to all children with disabilities; and (4) assessing the effectiveness of efforts to provide IDEA services to children with disabilities. The report focuses on children with disabilities being served under IDEA, Part B and Part C, nationally and at the State level. Part B of IDEA provides funds to States to assist them in making FAPE available to eligible children with disabilities, ages 3 through 21, who are in need of special education and related services, whereas Part C of IDEA provides funds to States to assist them in developing and implementing statewide, comprehensive, coordinated, multidisciplinary interagency systems to make early intervention services available to all eligible children with disabilities, from birth through age 2, and their families.[2] Throughout this report, children with disabilities who receive services under IDEA, Part B, or under IDEA, Part C, are referred to as children served under IDEA, Part B; students served under IDEA, Part B; or infants and toddlers served under IDEA, Part C. “Special education services” is a term used throughout this report to represent services provided under IDEA, Part B. Similarly, “early intervention services” is a term used synonymously with services provided under IDEA, Part C.

This 45th Annual Report to Congress, 2023 follows the 44th Annual Report to Congress, 2022 in sequence and format, and it continues to focus on IDEA results and accountability. Similar to the 44th Annual Report to Congress, 2022, the 45th Annual Report to Congress, 2023 contains the following six major sections that address the annual report requirements contained in Section 664(d) of IDEA. The sections are (1) a summary and analysis of IDEA Section 618 data at the national level[3]; (2) a summary and analysis of IDEA Section 618 data at the State level; (3) a summary and analysis of the U.S. Department of Education’s (Department) findings and determinations regarding the extent to which States are meeting the requirements of IDEA, Part B and Part C; (4) a summary of special education research conducted under Part E of the Education Sciences Reform Act of 2002; (5) a summary of national special education studies and evaluations conducted under Section 664(a) and (c) of IDEA; and (6) a summary of the extent and progress of the assessment of national activities, which focus on determining the effectiveness of IDEA and improving its implementation.

The content of this report differs from that of the 44th Annual Report to Congress, 2022 in several ways. The most recent data presented in this report represent the following applicable reporting periods: fall 2021, school year 2020–21, or a 12-month reporting period during 2020–21. Where data are presented for a 10-year period, the oldest data are associated with fall 2012. The 45th Annual Report to Congress, 2023 also reflects changes in reporting for the Part B assessment, child count and educational environments, and personnel data collections as well as changes to the determination process (see Changes Related to Assessment, Child Count, and Personnel Data Collections on p. 5).

Finally, on March 13, 2020, the President of the United States declared a national emergency due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) public health pandemic. On May 11, 2023, the COVID-19 national emergency ended. The COVID-19 pandemic challenged educators, early intervention service providers, and related services providers as they worked to meet the needs of children with disabilities in accordance with IDEA.[4] While this report acknowledges that there were challenges presented by COVID-19, and some data in this report were collected during the COVID-19 national emergency, the purpose of the 45th Annual Report to Congress, 2023 is to describe our nation’s progress implementing IDEA. It does not explore or explain the effects of any particular factor, including the COVID-19 pandemic, on such progress. The Department has published resources and policy documents related to the COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on special education and related services that States and local school districts provided under IDEA.[5],[6],[7]

A summary of each of the six sections and three appendices that make up the 45th Annual Report to Congress, 2023 follows.


[1] The year in the title reflects the U.S. Department of Education’s target year for submitting the report to Congress. The most current data in this report were collected from July 2020 through December 2021. These data have been available to the public prior to their presentation in this report. Subsequent references to this report and previously published annual reports will be abbreviated as the “XX Annual Report to Congress, Year” and will not include “on the Implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act.”

[2] A State may elect to make Part C services available to infants and toddlers with disabilities beyond age 3, consistent with IDEA Sections 632(5)(B) and 635(c) and 34 Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.) § 303.211. Data on these children are included in the annual reporting requirements for Part C under IDEA Sections 616, 618, and 642.

[3] Section 618 data consist of (1) the number of infants and toddlers served under IDEA, Part C; the settings in which they receive program services; information on the transition at age 3 out of Part C; and dispute resolution information under IDEA Part C; and (2) the number of children and students served under IDEA, Part B; the environments in which they receive education; their participation in and performance on State assessments (not available for school year 2019–20); information on their exiting special education services; the personnel employed to provide educational services to them; disciplinary actions that affect them; and dispute resolution information under IDEA, Part B; and information related to local maintenance of effort reduction and coordinated early intervening services.

[4] See OSERS letter to states and local partners, August 24, 2021 (https://sites.ed.gov/idea/files/rts-idea-08-24-2021.pdf).

[5] See, for example, Education in a Pandemic: The Disparate Impacts of COVID-19 on America’s Students, U.S. Department of Education, June 2021 (https://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ocr/docs/20210608-impacts-of-covid19.pdf).

[6] See, for example, Strategies for Using American Rescue Plan Funding to Address the Impact of Lost Instructional Time, U.S. Department of Education, August 2021 (https://www2.ed.gov/documents/coronavirus/lost-instructional-time.pdf).

[7] See, for example, OSEP Fast Facts: IDEA Section 618 Data Collected on Children With Disabilities Served Under IDEA During the Time of the COVID-19 Pandemic, U.S. Department of Education, July 2023 (https://sites.ed.gov/idea/osep-fast-facts-highlights-idea-data-during-covid19-pandemic).

Section I contains national data pertinent to Part B and Part C of IDEA. It contains four subsections. The four subsections focus on infants and toddlers birth through age 2 served under IDEA, Part C; children ages 3 through 5 (early childhood) served under IDEA, Part B; students ages 5 (school age) through 21 served under IDEA, Part B; and children and students ages 3 through 21 served under IDEA, Part B. The exhibits provide information about the characteristics of infants, toddlers, children, and students receiving services under Part B and Part C; their disabilities; the settings in which they receive services; their exits from Part B and Part C programs; disciplinary removals for Part B; and their legal disputes. Also addressed are the characteristics of the personnel employed to provide special education and related services for these children and students. The data presented in the exhibits and discussed in the bulleted text represent the 50 States, the District of Columbia (DC), the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (Puerto Rico or PR herein), and the four outlying areas of American Samoa, Guam, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (the Northern Mariana Islands herein), and the Virgin Islands of the United States (U.S. Virgin Islands herein). In addition, the exhibits that concern special education and related services provided under IDEA, Part B, include data for schools operated or funded by the Bureau of Indian Education (BIE) (referred to as Bureau of Indian Education schools or BIE schools herein) within the U.S. Department of the Interior, and the three freely associated states: the Federated States of Micronesia, the Republic of Palau, and the Republic of the Marshall Islands.

Section II contains State-level data regarding Part B and Part C of IDEA. This section is organized into four subsections that focus on infants and toddlers birth through age 2 served under IDEA, Part C; children ages 3 through 5 (early childhood) served under IDEA, Part B; students ages 5 (school age) through 21 served under IDEA, Part B; and children and students ages 3 through 21 served under IDEA, Part B. Each subsection addresses questions about the characteristics of infants, toddlers, children, and students receiving services under Part B and Part C; their disabilities; the settings in which they receive services; their exits from Part B and Part C programs; disciplinary removals for Part B; and their legal disputes. The characteristics of the personnel employed to provide special education and related services for these children and students are also addressed. The data presented in exhibits and discussed in the bulleted text represent the 50 States, the District of Columbia, Bureau of Indian Education schools, and Puerto Rico.

Sections 616(d) and 642 of IDEA require the Secretary to make an annual determination about the extent to which each State’s IDEA Part B and Part C programs are meeting the requirements of IDEA. To fulfill this requirement, the Secretary considers the State performance plan (SPP)/annual performance report (APR) of each State. Based on the information provided by the State in the SPP/APR, information obtained through monitoring reviews, and any other public information made available, the Secretary determines if the State meets the requirements and purposes of IDEA, needs assistance in implementing IDEA requirements, needs intervention in implementing IDEA requirements, or needs substantial intervention in implementing IDEA requirements. In June 2022, the Department issued determination letters on implementation of IDEA for the IDEA Federal fiscal year (FFY) 2020 SPP/APR reporting period (for data reported for the period July 1, 2020, through June 30, 2021) to 60 State educational agencies (SEAs) for Part B and to 56 State lead agencies for Part C. Section III presents the results of the determinations.

When Congress reauthorized IDEA in December 2004, it amended the Education Sciences Reform Act of 2002 (P.L. 107-279) by adding a new Part E to that Act. The new Part E established the National Center for Special Education Research (NCSER) as part of the Institute of Education Sciences (IES). NCSER began operation on July 1, 2005. As specified in Section 175(b) of the Education Sciences Reform Act of 2002, NCSER’s mission is to—

  • Sponsor research to expand knowledge and understanding of the needs of infants, toddlers, children, and students with disabilities in order to improve the developmental, educational, and transitional results of such individuals;
  • Sponsor research to improve services provided under, and support the implementation of, IDEA (20 United States Code [U.S.C.] § 1400 et seq.); and
  • Evaluate the implementation and effectiveness of IDEA in coordination with the National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance.

Section IV of this report describes the research projects funded by grants NCSER awarded during the Department’s FFY 2022 (October 1, 2021, through September 30, 2022) under Part E of the Education Sciences Reform Act of 2002.

In the December 2004 reauthorization of IDEA, Congress required the Secretary to delegate to the Director of IES responsibility to carry out studies and evaluations under Section 664(a), (b), (c), and (e) of IDEA. As specified in Section 664(a) of IDEA, IES, either directly or through grants, contracts, or cooperative agreements awarded to eligible entities on a competitive basis, assesses the progress in the implementation of IDEA, including the effectiveness of State and local efforts to provide (1) FAPE to children and students with disabilities and (2) early intervention services to infants and toddlers with disabilities and infants and toddlers who would be at risk of having substantial developmental delays if early intervention services were not provided to them. Section V of this report describes the studies and evaluations authorized by Section 664(a) and (e) of IDEA and supported by IES during FFY 2022 (October 1, 2021, through September 30, 2022).

Under Section 664(b) of IDEA (as amended in 2004), the Secretary is responsible for carrying out a “national assessment” of activities supported by Federal funds under IDEA. As delegated by the Secretary, IES is carrying out this national assessment to (1) determine the effectiveness of IDEA in achieving its purpose; (2) provide timely information to the President, Congress, the States, local educational agencies (LEAs), and the public on how to implement IDEA more effectively; and (3) provide the President and Congress with information that will be useful in developing legislation to achieve the purposes of IDEA more effectively. The national assessment is designed to address specific research questions that focus on (1) the implementation and impact of programs assisted under IDEA in addressing developmental and academic outcomes for children with disabilities, (2) identification for early intervention and special education, (3) early intervention and special education services, and (4) early intervention and special education personnel. Section VI describes studies supported in FFY 2022 (October 1, 2021, through September 30, 2022) that contribute to the national assessment.

Appendix A presents the numbers and percentages of the resident population represented by the infants and toddlers birth through age 2 served under IDEA, Part C, in 2021 in each State, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the four outlying areas (American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, and the U.S. Virgin Islands), and the children ages 3 through 5 and students ages 6 through 21 served under IDEA, Part B, in 2021 in each State, the District of Columbia, Bureau of Indian Education schools, Puerto Rico, the four outlying areas, and the three freely associated states (the Federated States of Micronesia, the Republic of Palau, and the Republic of the Marshall Islands). It also presents the number of infants and toddlers birth through age 2 and children and students ages 3 through 5 (early childhood) and 5 (school age) through 21 served under IDEA in each State, the District of Columbia, Bureau of Indian Education schools, Puerto Rico, the four outlying areas, and the three freely associated states, by race/ethnicity.

Appendix B presents information about the children ages 3 through 5 (early childhood) and students ages 5 (school age) through 9 served under IDEA, Part B, under the category of developmental delay.[1] Exhibits B-1 and B-2 provide data on the percentages of resident populations in the 50 States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico represented by the children ages 3 through 5 (early childhood) and students ages 5 (school age) through 9 served under IDEA, Part B, who were reported under the category of developmental delay, respectively, in each year, 2012 through 2021. Exhibit B-3 identifies whether each State, the District of Columbia, Bureau of Indian Education schools, Puerto Rico, the four outlying areas, and the three freely associated states reported any children ages 3 through 5 (early childhood) or any students ages 5 (school age) through 9 under the developmental delay category in 2021.


[1] This descriptor and other IDEA Section 618 data descriptors in this report are italicized within exhibits, text, and notes to clarify that the reference is to a grouping of data.

Appendix C presents State-level information on the number of students who received coordinated early intervening services (CEIS) and the number and percentage of LEAs, including educational service agencies (ESAs), that were required to reserve 15 percent of IDEA Sections 611 and 619 funds for comprehensive CEIS due to being identified with significant disproportionality or that voluntarily reserved up to 15 percent of IDEA Sections 611 and 619 funds for CEIS. In addition, State-level data are presented on the number and percentage of LEAs, including ESAs, that met the IDEA, Part B, requirements under 34 Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.) § 300.600(a)(2) and had an increase in IDEA, Part B, Section 611 allocations and took the maintenance of effort (MOE) reduction (or MOE reduction) pursuant to IDEA Section 613(a)(2)(C) in school year 2020–21.

Key Findings at the National Level

The 45th Annual Report to Congress, 2023 presents data collected from States. The report also includes information from studies, evaluations, and databases of the Institute of Education Sciences and U.S. Census Bureau. Some key findings from Section I of the report, “Summary and Analysis of IDEA [Individuals with Disabilities Education Act] Section 618 Data at the National Level,” follow. For further information regarding the key findings below, the reader is advised to review the exhibit cited and its additional associated text.

  • In 2021, there were 406,000 infants and toddlers birth through age 2 served under IDEA, Part C. Of those infants and toddlers, 403,567 were served in the 50 States and the District of Columbia. This number represented 3.7 percent of the birth-through-age-2 resident population in the 50 States and the District of Columbia. (Exhibit 1)
  • In 2012 and 2013, the percentage of the resident population of infants and toddlers birth through age 2 served under IDEA, Part C, was 2.8 percent. In 2014, the percentage increased to 2.9 percent and continued to increase each year, reaching 3.7 percent in 2019. In 2020, the percentage decreased to 3.2 percent and then increased back to 3.7 percent in 2021. From 2012 through 2013, the percentage of 2-year-olds in the resident population of infants and toddlers served under IDEA, Part C, decreased from 4.7 percent to 4.6 percent. In 2014, the percentage of 2-year-olds served increased to 4.9 percent and remained there in 2015. In 2016, the percentage of 2‑year-olds served increased to 5.2 percent and continued to increase to 6.2 percent in 2019. The percentage decreased to 5.3 percent in 2020 and then increased to a high of 6.4 percent in 2021. The percentage of 1-year-olds in the resident population of infants and toddlers served under IDEA, Part C, increased from 2.6 percent to 2.7 percent from 2012 through 2013. It remained 2.7 percent in 2014. In 2015, the percentage increased to 2.8 percent and continued to increase to 3.4 percent in 2019. In 2020, the percentage decreased to 3 percent and then increased to 3.2 percent in 2021. From 2012 through 2014, the percentage of infants and toddlers under 1 year in the resident population served under IDEA, Part C, was 1.1 percent. In 2015, the percentage increased to 1.2 percent and remained there through 2018. In 2019, the percentage increased to 1.4 percent and then decreased to 1.1 percent in 2020. In 2021, the percentage increased to 1.3 percent. (Exhibit 2)
  • In 2021, Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander infants and toddlers, Hispanic/Latino infants and toddlers, and White infants and toddlers had risk ratios of 1.3, 1.1, and 1.1, respectively, indicating that infants and toddlers in each of these racial/ethnic groups were more likely than those in all other racial/ethnic groups combined to be served under IDEA, Part C. In 2021, Black or African American infants and toddlers, infants and toddlers associated with two or more races, American Indian or Alaska Native infants and toddlers, and Asian infants and toddlers had risk ratios of 0.9, 0.9, 0.8, and 0.8, respectively, indicating that infants and toddlers in each of these groups were less likely than those in all other racial/ethnic groups combined to be served under IDEA, Part C. (Exhibit 3)
  • During 2020–21, cumulative child count data reveal Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander infants and toddlers and White infants and toddlers had risk ratios of 1.2 and 1.1, respectively, indicating that infants and toddlers in each of these racial/ethnic groups were more likely than those in all other racial/ethnic groups combined to be served under IDEA, Part C. Cumulative child count data reveal Black or African American infants and toddlers, infants and toddlers associated with two or more races, American Indian or Alaska Native infants and toddlers, and Asian infants and toddlers had risk ratios of 0.9, 0.9, 0.8, and 0.8, respectively, indicating that infants and toddlers in each of these groups were less likely than those in all other racial/ethnic groups combined to be served under IDEA, Part C. Cumulative child count data reveal Hispanic/Latino infants and toddlers were associated with a risk ratio of 1, indicating that they were as likely to be served under IDEA, Part C, as the infants and toddlers in all other racial/ethnic groups combined. (Exhibit 4)
  • In 2021, of the 406,000 infants and toddlers served under Part C, 91.7 percent received their early intervention services primarily in the home. The category of community-based setting was reported as the primary early intervention setting for 4.7 percent of those served under Part C. Consequently, 96.5 percent of infants and toddlers served under IDEA, Part C, in 2021 received their early intervention services primarily in natural environments, which are defined as the home or a community-based setting. (Exhibit 5)
  • In 2021, home was the primary early intervention service setting for at least 90.7 percent of the infants and toddlers birth through age 2 served under IDEA, Part C, in each racial/ethnic group. The largest percentage of infants and toddlers served under IDEA, Part C, who received early intervention services in a community-based setting was associated with American Indian or Alaska Native infants and toddlers (6.4 percent), while the smallest percentage served in this setting was associated with Asian infants and toddlers (4.2 percent). (Exhibit 6)
  • Of the Part C exiting categories in 2020–21, Part B eligible, exiting Part C accounted for the largest percentage of infants and toddlers. Specifically, this category accounted for 119,201 of 373,043, or 32 percent, of infants and toddlers. An additional 4.1 percent of the infants and toddlers were found to be eligible for Part B but continued to receive services under Part C. Part B eligibility not determined was the second most prevalent exiting category, as it accounted for 18.1 percent of the infants and toddlers. Withdrawal by parent (or guardian) and no longer eligible for Part C prior to reaching age 3 accounted for 15.7 percent and 8.9 percent, respectively. (Exhibit 7)
  • In 2020–21, 119,201, or 51.7 percent, of the 230,421 infants and toddlers served under IDEA, Part C, who reached age 3 were determined to be Part B eligible, exiting Part C. An additional 6.7 percent of these infants and toddlers were found to be eligible for Part B but continued to receive services under Part C. Eligibility for Part B was not determined for 29.3 percent of the infants and toddlers served under IDEA, Part C, who had reached age 3. The remaining 12.3 percent of the infants and toddlers served under Part C who had reached age 3 exited Part C and were determined to be not eligible for Part B. The infants and toddlers who were not eligible for Part B included those who exited with referrals to other programs (6.2 percent) and those who exited with no referrals (6.1 percent). (Exhibit 8)
  • During 2020–21, a total of 56 written, signed complaints were received through the dispute resolution process for infants and toddlers birth through age 2 served under IDEA, Part C. A report was issued for 37 (66.1 percent) of the complaints, while 18 (32.1percent) of the complaints were withdrawn or dismissed. There was one (1.8 percent) complaint pending by the end of the period. (Exhibit 9)
  • A total of 25 due process complaints were received during 2020–21 through the dispute resolution process for infants and toddlers birth through age 2 served under IDEA, Part C. For 14 (56.0 percent) of the due process complaints received during the reporting period, the complaint was withdrawn or dismissed. For nine (36.0 percent) of the due process complaints received, a hearing was conducted, and a written decision was issued. A hearing was pending as of the end of the reporting period for two complaints (8.0 percent). (Exhibit 10)
  • During 2020–21, a total of 66 mediation requests were received through the dispute resolution process for infants and toddlers birth through age 2 served under IDEA, Part C. A mediation was conducted before the end of the reporting period for 46 (69.7 percent) of the mediation requests received. None of these mediation cases were related to a due process complaint. There were 19 (28.8 percent) mediation requests received during the reporting period that were withdrawn, dismissed, or otherwise ended without a mediation being held. One (1.5 percent) mediation request was pending at the end of the reporting period. (Exhibit 11)
  • In 2021, there were 741,510 children ages 3 through 5 served under Part B in the 50 States for which data were available, the District of Columbia, Bureau of Indian Education schools, Puerto Rico, the four outlying areas, and the three freely associated states. Of these children, 731,897 were served in 50 States, the District of Columbia, and Bureau of Indian Education schools. This number represented 6.2 percent of the resident population ages 3 through 5. (Exhibit 12[1])
  • In 2021, the most prevalent disability category of children ages 3 through 5 (early childhood) served under IDEA, Part B, was developmental delay (specifically, 216,727 of 467,163 children, or 46.4 percent). The next most common disability category was speech or language impairment (34.0 percent), followed by autism (13.0 percent). The children ages 3 through 5 (early childhood) represented by the category “Other disabilities combined” accounted for the remaining 6.6 percent of children served under IDEA, Part B. (Exhibit 13)
  • In 2021, American Indian or Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander children, White children, and children associated with two or more races ages 3 through 5 (early childhood) had risk ratios above 1 (i.e., 1.2, 1.2, 1.2, and 1.1, respectively). This indicates that the children in each of these groups were more likely to be served under Part B than were children ages 3 through 5 (early childhood) in all other racial/ethnic groups combined. Black or African American children, Hispanic/Latino children, and Asian children ages 3 through 5 (early childhood), were associated with risk ratios less than 1 (i.e., 0.9, 0.9, and 0.7, respectively), indicating that the children in each of these groups were less likely to be served under Part B than children ages 3 through 5 (early childhood) in all other racial/ethnic groups combined. (Exhibit 14)
  • In 2021, a total of 267,825, or 56.8 percent, of the 471,377 children ages 3 through 5 (early childhood) served under IDEA, Part B, attended a regular early childhood program for some amount of their time in school. Children attending a regular early childhood program at least 10 hours per week and receiving the majority of hours of special education and related services in the regular early childhood program accounted for 36.1 percent of all children ages 3 through 5 (early childhood) served under IDEA, Part B. This represented more children than any other educational environment category. Attendance in a separate class accounted for 28.6 percent of children ages 3 through 5 (early childhood) served under IDEA, Part B, making it the second most prevalent educational environment category. Collectively, attendance in a separate school, residential facility, and home (which are represented by the term “Other environments”) accounted for 6 percent of the children ages 3 through 5 (early childhood) served under IDEA, Part B. The educational environment category for the remaining students, representing 8.6 percent of the children ages 3 through 5 (early childhood) served under IDEA, Part B, was a service provider location. (Exhibit 15)
  • In 2021, in each racial/ethnic group, except for Asian children, more than 50 percent of children ages 3 through 5 (early childhood) served under IDEA, Part B spent a portion of time in a regular early childhood program. Children attending a regular early childhood program at least 10 hours per week and receiving the majority of hours of special education and related services in the regular early childhood program accounted for the largest percentage of children who attended a regular early childhood program for every racial/ethnic group. Moreover, for every racial/ethnic group, except for Asian and Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, this educational environment category accounted for a larger percentage of the children than did any other category of educational environment. The percentages of students in racial/ethnic groups served under the educational environment category of children attending a regular early childhood program at least 10 hours per week and receiving the majority of hours of special education and related services in the regular early childhood program ranged from 29.4 percent to 40.8 percent. Separate class was the most prevalent educational environment category for Asian children and Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander children. This category accounted for 41 percent of Asian children, 35.1 percent of Black or African American children, 33.5 percent of Hispanic/Latino children, 32.3 percent of Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander children, 31.7 percent of children associated with two or more races, and 23.3 percent of White children. (Exhibit 16)
  • In 2020, a total of 34,771, or 94.4 percent, of the 36,833 full-time equivalent (FTE) special education teachers who were employed to provide special education and related services for children ages 3 through 5 (early childhood) under IDEA, Part B, were fully certified. (Exhibit 17)
  • In 2020, a total of 47,559, or 92.7 percent, of the 51,280 FTE special education paraprofessionals who were employed to provide special education and related services for children ages 3 through 5 (early childhood) under IDEA, Part B, were qualified. (Exhibit 18)

[1] Note that calculating results for children ages 3 through 5 is an approach that differs from the approach in Exhibits 13–14, which calculate exhibit results for children ages 3 through 5 (early childhood). The phrasing “ages 3 through 5” indicates data is inclusive of children ages 3 through 5 regardless of kindergarten status, whereas “ages 3 through 5 (early childhood)” denotes that the data include children ages 3 through 5, where 5-year-olds are not in kindergarten and are receiving services in early childhood educational environments.

  • In 2021, a total of 6,611,306 students ages 6 through 21 were served under IDEA, Part B, in the 50 States for which data were available, the District of Columbia, Bureau of Indian Education schools, Puerto Rico, the four outlying areas, and the three freely associated states. Of these students, 6,524,630 were served in 50 States, the District of Columbia, and Bureau of Indian Education schools. This number represented 9.6 percent of the resident population ages 6 through 21. (Exhibit 19[1])
  • The percentage of the resident population ages 6 through 21 served under IDEA, Part B, in 2012 was 8.4 percent. In 2013, it increased to 8.5 percent and continued to increase gradually to 9.7 percent in 2019, before decreasing to 9.6 percent in 2021. In 2012, the percentage of the population ages 6 through 11 served under IDEA, Part B, was 10.7 percent. It increased each year thereafter, reaching a high of 12.7 percent in 2019, before decreasing to 12.4 percent in 2020, where it remained in 2021. The percentage of the population ages 12 through 17 served under IDEA, Part B, was 10.8 percent in 2012 and 2013. The percentage then increased from 11 percent in 2014 to 12.4 percent in 2020 and then decreased to 12 percent in 2021. The percentage of the population ages 18 through 21 served under IDEA, Part B, was 2 percent in each year from 2012 through 2021. (Exhibit 20)
  • In 2021, the most prevalent disability category of students ages 5 (school age) through 21 served under IDEA, Part B, was specific learning disability (specifically, 2,351,863, or 34.5 percent, of the 6,815,457 students ages 5 (school age) through 21 served under IDEA, Part B). The next most common disability category was other health impairment (18.1 percent), followed by speech or language impairment (16.6 percent), autism (12.2 percent), intellectual disability (6.1 percent), and emotional disturbance (4.8 percent). Students ages 5 (school age) through 21 in “Other disabilities combined” accounted for the remaining 7.8 percent of students ages 5 (school age) through 21 served under IDEA, Part B. (Exhibit 21)
  • Between 2012 and 2019, the most prevalent disability category for students ages 6 through 21 served under IDEA, Part B, was specific learning disability. The next most common disability categories were speech or language impairment and other health impairment. Similarly, in 2020 and 2021, the most prevalent disability category for students ages 5 (school age) through 21 served under IDEA, Part B, as a percentage of all resident students in that age range, was specific learning disability (3.3 percent and 3.2 percent, respectively). In both years, the next most common disability category was speech or language impairment (1.7 percent), followed by other health impairment (1.6 percent). (Exhibit 22)
  • Between 2012 and 2019, the percentage of the resident populations ages 6 through 11 and 6 through 21 served under IDEA, Part B, that was reported under the category of autism increased gradually from 0.9 percent to 1.5 percent and 0.7 percent to 1.1 percent, respectively. Between 2020 and 2021, the percentages of the populations ages 5 (school age) through 11 and 5 (school age) through 21 served under IDEA, Part B, that were reported under the category of autism increased from 1.4 percent to 1.5 percent and 1.1 percent to 1.2 percent, respectively. Between 2012 and 2021, the percentages of the populations ages 12 through 17 and 18 through 21 served under IDEA, Part B, that were reported under the category of autism both increased. Specifically, the percentages of these two age groups that were reported under the category of autism were 79.7 percent and 83.5 percent larger in 2021 than in 2012, respectively. (Exhibit 23)
  • The percentage of the population ages 6 through 11 served under IDEA, Part B, that was reported under the category of other health impairment was 46.2 percent larger in 2019 than in 2012. From 2012 through 2019, the percentage of the resident population ages 6 through 21 served under IDEA, Part B, that was reported under the category of other health impairment increased gradually from 1.1 percent to 1.6 percent. Between 2020 and 2021, the percentages of the populations ages 5 (school age) through 11 and 5 (school age) through 21 served under IDEA, Part B, that were reported under the category of other heath impairment remained the same at 1.5 percent and 1.6 percent, respectively. The percentages of the populations ages 12 through 17 and 18 through 21 served under IDEA, Part B, that were reported under the category of other health impairment were 46.7 percent and 33.1 percent larger in 2021 than in 2012, respectively. (Exhibit 24)
  • The percentage of the resident population ages 6 through 11 served under IDEA, Part B, that was reported under the category of specific learning disability increased from 3 percent in 2012 to 3.6 percent in 2019. The percentage of the resident population ages 6 through 21 served under IDEA, Part B, that was reported under the category of specific learning disability increased from 3.4 percent in 2012 to 3.6 percent in 2019. Between 2020 and 2021, the percentages of the populations ages 5 (school age) through 11 and ages 5 (school age) through 21 served under IDEA, Part B, that were reported under the category of specific learning disability remained the same at 2.8 percent and 3.2 percent, respectively. The percentage of the population ages 12 through 17 served under IDEA, Part B, that was reported under the category of specific learning disability was 4.2 percent larger in 2021 than in 2012. The percentage of the population ages 18 through 21 served under IDEA, Part B, that was reported under the category of specific learning disability was 19.2 percent smaller in 2021 than in 2012. (Exhibit 25)
  • In 2021, for all disabilities, American Indian or Alaska Native students, Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander students, Black or African American students, Hispanic/Latino students, and students associated with two or more races ages 5 (school age) through 21, with risk ratios of 1.5, 1.4, 1.3, 1.1, and 1.1, respectively, were more likely to be served under IDEA, Part B, than were students ages 5 (school age) through 21 in all other racial/ethnic groups combined. In 2021, for all disabilities, Asian students and White students ages 5 (school age) through 21, with risk ratios of 0.5 and 0.8, respectively, were less likely to be served under IDEA, Part B, than were students ages 5 (school age) through 21 in all other racial/ethnic groups combined. (Exhibit 26)
  • In 2021, with a risk ratio of 3.4, American Indian or Alaska Native students ages 5 (school age) through 21 were more than three times more likely to be served under IDEA, Part B, for developmental delay than were students ages 5 (school age) through 21 in all other racial/ethnic groups combined. The risk ratio for American Indian or Alaska Native students ages 5 (school age) through 21 was higher than 1 for each of the other disability categories except for orthopedic impairment (1.0 percent)and autism (0.9 percent). Asian students ages 5 (school age) through 21 were 1.2 times as likely to be served under IDEA, Part B, for the disability category of autism than were students ages 5 (school age) through 21 in all other racial/ethnic groups combined. The risk ratio for Asian students ages 5 (school age) through 21 was equal to 1 for deaf-blindness and for orthopedic impairment, 1.1 for hearing impairment, and less than 1 for each of the other disability categories. With a risk ratio higher than 1, Black or African American students ages 5 (school age) through 21 were more likely to be served under IDEA, Part B, than were students ages 5 (school age) through 21 in all other racial/ethnic groups combined for the following disability categories: autism (1.2), developmental delay (1.5), emotional disturbance (1.8), intellectual disability (2.2), multiple disabilities (1.3), other health impairment (1.4), specific learning disability (1.4), traumatic brain injury (1.2), and visual impairment (1.1). The risk ratio for Black or African American students ages 5 (school age) through 21 was less than 1 for deaf-blindness (0.9), hearing impairment (0.9), orthopedic impairment (0.9), and speech or language impairment (0.9). With a risk ratio higher than 1, Hispanic/Latino students ages 5 (school age) through 21 were more likely to be served under IDEA, Part B, than were students ages 5 (school age) through 21 in all other racial/ethnic groups combined for the following disability categories: autism (1.1), hearing impairment (1.4), intellectual disability (1.1), orthopedic impairment (1.2), specific learning disability (1.4), and speech or language impairment (1.2). The risk ratio for Hispanic/Latino students ages 5 (school age) through 21 was equal to 1 for deaf-blindness and less than 1 for all other disability categories. Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander students ages 5 (school age) through 21 were at least two times as likely to be served under IDEA, Part B, for hearing impairment (2.4) and multiple disabilities (2.1) than were students ages 5 (school age) through 21 in all other racial/ethnic groups combined. The risk ratio for Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander students ages 5 (school age) through 21 was higher than 1 for every other disability category, compared to all other racial/ethnic groups combined, except for emotional disturbance (0.9)and speech or language impairment (1.0). With a risk ratio higher than 1, White students ages 5 (school age) through 21 were more likely to be served under IDEA, Part B, than were students ages 5 (school age) through 21 in all other racial/ethnic groups combined for the following disability categories: multiple disabilities (1.1), other health impairment (1.1), and traumatic brain injury (1.2). The risk ratio for White students ages 5 (school age) through 21 was equal to 1 for deaf-blindness, emotional disturbance, and visual impairment and less than 1 for all other disability categories. With a risk ratio higher than 1, students ages 5 (school age) through 21 associated with two or more races were more likely to be served under IDEA, Part B, than were students ages 5 (school age) through 21 in all other racial/ethnic groups combined for the following disability categories: autism (1.2), deaf-blindness (1.2), developmental delay (1.5), emotional disturbance (1.6), other health impairment (1.3), and speech or language impairment (1.1). The risk ratio for students ages 5 (school age) through 21 associated with two or more races was equal to 1 for hearing impairment, multiple disabilities, orthopedic impairment, specific learning disability, traumatic brain injury,and visual impairment and less than 1 for intellectual disability. (Exhibit 27)
  • For the students ages 5 (school age) through 21 served under IDEA, Part B, in 2021, specific learning disability was more prevalent than any other disability category for almost every racial/ethnic group. In particular, this disability category accounted for 39.9 percent of American Indian or Alaska Native students, 19.3 percent of Asian students, 36.1 percent of Black or African American students, 40.7 percent of Hispanic/Latino students, 45.4 percent of Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander students, 31 percent of White students, and 30.7 percent of students associated with two or more races. Autism was the most prevalent disability category for Asian students (29.3 percent). Other health impairment was the second most prevalent disability category for the following racial/ethnic groups: Black or African American students (16.7 percent), Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander students (11.3 percent), and students associated with two or more races (18.5 percent). Speech or language impairment was the second most prevalent disability category for American Indian or Alaska Native students (15.5 percent), Asian students (23.8 percent), Hispanic/Latino students (18.8 percent), and White students (19.2 percent). (Exhibit 28)
  • In 2021, a total of 6,553,058, or 95.2 percent, of the 6,881,439 students ages 5 (school age) through 21 served under IDEA, Part B, were educated in regular classrooms for at least some portion of the school day. The majority (66.7 percent) of students ages 5 (school age) through 21 served under IDEA, Part B, were educated inside the regular class 80% or more of the day. Also, 16 percent of students ages 5 (school age) through 21 served under IDEA, Part B, were educated inside the regular class 40% through 79% of the day, and 12.5 percent were educated inside the regular class less than 40% of the day. Additionally, 4.8 percent of students ages 5 (school age) through 21 served under IDEA, Part B, were educated outside of the regular classroom in “Other environments.” (Exhibit 29)
  • From 2012 through 2018, the percentage of students ages 5 (school age) through 21 served under IDEA, Part B, who were educated inside the regular class 80% or more of the day increased from 61.5 percent to 64 percent. From 2019 through 2021, the percentage of students ages 5 (school age) through 21 served under IDEA, Part B, who were educated inside the regular class 80% or more of the day increased from 64.8 percent to 66.7 percent. The percentage of students ages 6 through 21 served under IDEA, Part B, who were educated inside the regular class 40% through 79% of the day decreased from 19.5 percent in 2012 to 17.9 percent in 2018. The percentage of students ages 5 (school age) through 21 served under IDEA, Part B, who were educated inside the regular class 40% through 79% of the day decreased from 17.4 percent in 2019 to 16 percent in 2021. The percentage of students ages 6 through 21 served under IDEA, Part B, who were educated inside the regular class less than 40% of the day decreased from 13.8 percent in 2012 to 13.1 percent in 2018. The percentage of students ages 5 (school age) through 21 served under IDEA, Part B, who were educated inside the regular class less than 40% of the day decreased from 12.8 percent in 2019 to 12.5 percent in 2021. The percentage of students ages 6 through 21 served under IDEA, Part B, who were educated in “Other environments” was 5.2 percent in 2012. The percentage dipped to 5 percent in 2013 and then climbed to 5.3 percent in 2014. The percentage then dropped steadily to 5 percent in 2018. The percentage of students ages 5 (school age) through 21 served under IDEA, Part B, who were educated in “Other environments” was 4.9 percent in 2019 and decreased in 2020 to 4.8 percent and remained there in 2021. (Exhibit 30)
  • In 2021, more than 8 in 10 students (88.3 percent) reported under the category of speech or language impairment were educated inside the regular class 80% or more of the day. Less than 2 in 10 students (18.7 percent) reported under the category of intellectual disability were educated inside the regular class 80% or more of the day. Similarly, less than 2 in 10 students (15.3 percent) reported under the category of multiple disabilities were educated inside the regular class 80% or more of the day. In 2021, almost one-half (47.2 percent) of students reported under the category of intellectual disability and 43.5 percent of students reported under the category of multiple disabilities were educated inside the regular class less than 40% of the day. In 2021, larger percentages of students reported under the categories of deaf-blindness (26.7 percent) and multiple disabilities (23.2 percent) were educated in “Other environments” compared to students reported under other disability categories. (Exhibit 31)
  • In 2021, for each racial/ethnic group, the largest percentage of students ages 5 (school age) through 21 served under IDEA, Part B, was educated inside the regular class 80% or more of the day. The students who were educated inside the regular class 80% or more of the day accounted for at least 50 percent of the students in each of the racial/ethnic groups, ranging from 58.1 percent to 69.7 percent. The students who were educated inside the regular class 40% through 79% of the day accounted for between 14.9 and 22.5 percent of the students within each racial/ethnic group. Less than 20 percent of the students within each racial/ethnic group, except for Asian students (22.1 percent), were educated inside the regular class less than 40% of the day. “Other environments” accounted for less than 6 percent of the students within each racial/ethnic group. (Exhibit 32)
  • In school year 2020–21, between 67.8 and 75.9 percent of students served under IDEA, Part B, in each of grades 3 through 8 and high school, who did not have a medical exemption, participated in a math assessment. Between 24.1 and 32.2 percent did not participate. (Exhibit 33)
  • In school year 2020–21, between 65.2 and 75.4 percent of students served under IDEA, Part B, in each of grades 3 through 8 and high school, who did not have a medical exemption, participated in a reading assessment. Between 24.6 and 34.8 percent did not participate. (Exhibit 34)
  • In school year 2020–21, between 33.8 and 40.8 percent of students served under IDEA, Part B, in each of grades 3 through 8 and high school participated in a regular assessment based on grade-level academic achievement standards with accommodations in math. Between 22.2 and 35.4 percent of students served under IDEA, Part B, in each of grades 3 through 8 and high school participated in a regular assessment based on grade-level academic achievement standards without accommodations in math. All students in each of grades 3 through 8 and high school who participated in an alternate assessment in math in school year 2020–21 took an alternate assessment based on alternate achievement standards. Between 5.8 and 6.7 percent of students served under IDEA, Part B, in each of grades 3 through 8 and high school participated in an alternate assessment based on alternate achievement standards in math. (Exhibit 35)
  • In school year 2020–21, between 33.6 and 40.7 percent of students served under IDEA, Part B, in each of grades 3 through 8 and high school participated in a regular assessment based on grade-level academic achievement standards with accommodations in reading. Between 21.7 and 35.8 percent of students served under IDEA, Part B, in each of grades 3 through 8 and high school participated in a regular assessment based on grade-level academic achievement standards without accommodations in reading. All students in each of grades 3 through 8 and high school who participated in an alternate assessment in reading in school year 2020–21 took an alternate assessment based on alternate achievement standards. Between 5.9 and 7 percent of students served under IDEA, Part B, in each of grades 3 through 8 and high school participated in an alternate assessment based on alternate achievement standards in reading. (Exhibit 36)
  • For school year 2020–21, of the 60 jurisdictions (i.e., the 50 States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, Bureau of Indian Education schools, the four outlying areas, and the three freely associated states), non-suppressed data were available for between 43 and 46 jurisdictions that administered a regular assessment based on grade-level academic achievement standards in math to some students served under IDEA, Part B, in each of grades 3 through 8 and high school. The median percentages of these students who were found to be proficient in math using these math tests ranged from 5.7 percent to 18.8 percent. Non-suppressed data were available for between 48 and 50 jurisdictions that administered an alternate assessment based on alternate achievement standards for math to some students served under IDEA, Part B, in each of grades 3 through 8 and high school. The median percentages of these students who were found to be proficient in math using these math tests ranged from 32.5 percent to 38.2 percent. (Exhibit 37)
  • For school year 2020–21, of the 60 jurisdictions (i.e., the 50 States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, Bureau of Indian Education, the four outlying areas, and the three freely associated states), non-suppressed data were available for between 43 and 47 jurisdictions that administered a regular assessment based on grade-level academic achievement standards in reading to some students served under IDEA, Part B, in each of grades 3 through 8 and high school. The median percentages of these students who were found to be proficient in reading using these reading tests ranged from 10.8 percent to 16.6 percent. Non-suppressed data were available for between 46 and 48 jurisdictions that administered an alternate assessment based on alternate achievement standards for reading to some students served under IDEA, Part B, in each of grades 3 through 8 and high school. The median percentages of these students who were found to be proficient in reading using these reading tests ranged from 35.3 percent to 40.5 percent. (Exhibit 38)
  • Of the eight exiting categories, graduated with a regular high school diploma accounted for the largest percentage of students ages 14 through 21 who exited special education in 2020–21 (specifically, 331,824 of the 627,530 students, or 52.9 percent). This was followed by moved, known to be continuing in education (21.6 percent) and dropped out (10.3 percent). (Exhibit 39)
  • In 2020–21, a total of 75.4 percent of the students ages 14 through 21 who exited IDEA, Part B, and school graduated with a regular high school diploma, while 14.7 percent dropped out. The percentage of students who exited special education and school by having graduated with a regular high school diploma increased from 63.9 percent in 2011–12 to 75.4 percent in 2020–21. From 2011–12 through 2020–21, the percentage of students who exited special education and school by having dropped out decreased from 20.5 percent to 14.7 percent. (Exhibit 40)
  • In comparison to school year 2011–12, the percentage graduating with a regular high school diploma in 2020–21 increased for students who exited IDEA, Part B, and school in all disability categories except multiple disabilities. The percentage graduating with a regular high school diploma increased by at least 7 percentage points for students who exited IDEA, Part B, and school in all disability categories except multiple disabilities. From 2011–12 through 2014–15, the disability category with the largest percentage graduating with a regular high school diploma was visual impairment. From 2015–16 through 2020–21, the disability category of speech or language impairment was associated with the largest percentage graduating with a regular high school diploma. The students reported under the category of intellectual disability had the smallest percentages graduating with a regular high school diploma from 2011–12 through 2016–17. The students reported under the category of multiple disabilities had the smallest percentages graduating with a regular high school diploma from 2017‒18 through 2020–21. (Exhibit 41)
  • The dropout percentage was lower in school year 2020–21 than in 2011–12 for students who exited IDEA, Part B, and school in all disability categories except for visual impairment, which experienced an increase of 0.2 percent. The dropout percentage decreases were less than 11 percentage points in each disability category that experienced a percentage decrease. In each year from 2011–12 through 2020–21, a larger percentage of the students reported under the category of emotional disturbance exited special education and school by dropping out than for any other disability category. (Exhibit 42)
  • In 2020, a total of 410,316, or 92.2 percent, of the 444,901 full-time equivalent (FTE) special education teachers who provided special education and related services for students ages 5 (school age) through 21 under IDEA, Part B, were fully certified. (Exhibit 43)
  • In 2020, a total of 476,214, or 92.9 percent, of the 512,755 FTE special education paraprofessionals who provided special education and related services for students ages 5 (school age) through 21 under IDEA, Part B, were qualified. (Exhibit 44)

[1] Note that calculating results for children ages 6 through 21 is an approach that differs from Exhibits 21–28, which calculate exhibit results for students ages 5 (school age) through 21. The phrasing “(school age)” denotes that the data include children and students ages 5 through 21, where 5-year-olds are in kindergarten and receiving services in school-age environments.

  • In 2020, a total of 97.5 percent of all full-time equivalent (FTE) personnel who were employed to provide related services for children and students ages 3 through 21 served under IDEA, Part B, were fully certified. In 10 of the 11 related services personnel categories, 95.7 percent or more of FTE related services personnel were fully certified. Interpreters was the exception at 91.5 percent. (Exhibit 45)
  • During the 2020–21 school year, 2,630 children and students ages 3 through 21 served under IDEA, Part B,in the jurisdictions for which data were available experienced a unilateral removal to an interim alternative educational setting by school personnel (not the IEP [individualized education program] team) for drugs, weapons, or serious bodily injury. Given that 6,914,648 children and students ages 3 through 21 were served under Part B in 2020, in the States for which data were available, this type of action occurred with 4 children and students for every 10,000 children and students who were served under Part B in 2020. A total of 184 children and students ages 3 through 21 served under IDEA,Part B,or less than 5 for every 100,000 children and students served in the jurisdictions for which data were available, experienced a removal to an interim alternative educational setting based on a hearing officer determination regarding likely injury in school year 2020–21. There were 7,991 children and students ages 3 through 21 served under IDEA, Part B,or 11 for every 10,000 children and students served in the jurisdictions for which data were available, who received out-of-school suspensions or expulsions for more than 10 cumulative days in school year 2020–21. There were 5,545 children and students ages 3 through 21 served under IDEA, Part B,or 8 for every 10,000 children and students served in the jurisdictions for which data were available, who received in‑school suspensions for more than 10 cumulative days in school year 2020–21. (Exhibit 46)
  • For every 10,000 children and students ages 3 through 21 served under IDEA, Part B, who were reported under the category of emotional disturbance in 2020, there were 15 children and students removed unilaterally to an interim alternative educational setting by school personnel for offenses involving drugs, weapons, or serious bodily injury during school year 2020–21. The ratio for the children and students reported under each of the other disability categories was 6 or less per 10,000 children and students served. Without regard for disability category, for every 10,000 children and students ages 3 through 21 served under IDEA, Part B, in 2020, no more than two children and students were removed by a hearing officer for likely injury during school year 2020–21. For every 10,000 children and students ages 3 through 21 served under IDEA, Part B, who were reported under the category of emotional disturbance in 2020, there were 55 children and students who received out-of-school suspensions or expulsions for more than 10 cumulative days during school year 2020–21. The ratio for the children and students reported under each of the other disability categories was 22 or less per 10,000 children and students served. For every 10,000 children and students ages 3 through 21 served under IDEA, Part B, who were reported under the category of emotional disturbance in 2020, there were 29 children and students who received in-school suspensions for more than 10 cumulative days during school year 2020–21. The ratio for the children and students reported under each of the other disability categories was 15 or less per 10,000 children and students served. (Exhibit 47)
  • During 2020–21, a total of 4,186 written, signed complaints were received through the dispute resolution process for children and students ages 3 through 21 served under IDEA, Part B. A report was issued for 2,814 (67.2 percent) of the complaints, while 1,273 (30.4 percent) of the complaints were withdrawn or dismissed. A total of 99 (2.4 percent) of the complaints that were received during the 2020–21 reporting period were pending or unresolved by the end of the period. (Exhibit 48)
  • A total of 23,567 due process complaints were received during 2020–21 through the dispute resolution process for children and students ages 3 through 21 served under IDEA, Part B. For 9,790 (41.5 percent) of the due process complaints received during the 2020–21 reporting period, a resolution was achieved without a hearing. For 1,293 (5.5 percent) of the due process complaints received, a hearing was conducted and a written decision was issued. For 12,484 (53.0 percent) of the due process complaints received, a resolution was still pending at the end of the reporting period. (Exhibit 49)
  • During 2020–21, a total of 8,725 mediation requests were received through the dispute resolution process for children and students ages 3 through 21 served under IDEA, Part B. For 2,720 (31.2 percent) of the mediation requests received, a mediation related to a due process complaint was conducted. For 2,076 (23.8 percent) of the mediation requests received, a mediation that was not related to a due process complaint was conducted. For 477 requests (5.5 percent), a mediation session was still pending as of the end of the 2020–21 reporting period. The remaining 3,452 mediation requests (39.6 percent) were withdrawn or otherwise not held by the end of the reporting period. (Exhibit 50)
  • A total of 62,683, or 0.9 percent, of the 7,352,816 children and students ages 3 through 21 served under Part B in 2021 by the 50 States, the District of Columbia, Bureau of Indian Education schools, Puerto Rico, the four outlying areas, and the three freely associated states received coordinated early intervening services (CEIS) in school year(s) 2018–19, 2019–20, or 2020–21 prior to being served under Part B. (Exhibit 51)

Discipline, Severe Discrepancy, Severe Discrepancy, Severe Discrepancy, Screening
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Last modified on March 26, 2024